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Title: 內戰時期上海市社會局處理勞資爭議的經過與成效
Other Titles: The Process and Results of Shanghai’s Bureau of Social Affairs Handling of Labor Disputes during the Chinese Civil Wars
Authors: 李鎧光
Li, Kai-kuang
Keywords: 上海市社會局;勞資爭議評斷委員會;勞資爭議;通貨膨脹
Shanghai’s Bureau of Social Affairs;labor dispute resolution committee;labor dispute;inflation
Date: 2011-11
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 16:00:28 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文以內戰時期上海市社會局如何處理勞資爭議為重點,首先指出在1945-1949年間發生大量勞資爭議原因在於政府以大量發行法幣所造成的通貨膨脹,使得工人收入不足以維持生活,企業主則認為工資逐步上漲,生產成本越來越高,雙方因此發生衝突。地方政府將勞資爭議分為兩類,一稱為罷工停業案件,一稱為勞資糾紛案件,二次大戰後兩類案件的數量都是戰前的好幾倍。社會局自從1927年成立以來便一直負責調解勞資爭議,更在1946年5月成立勞資評斷委員會,做為最終的裁決機構。就法令的層面來說,雖然評斷委員會比較具有主動性,但是透過該委員會裁決的案件只占少數,而該委員會的主要任務則在制定各種單行法規。文中以美光火柴廠、旅館業、鉛印業三個案為例,將勞方或資方的要求與最後的和解書進行比對,得知在美光火柴廠案中,社會局對勞方的要求打折,在鉛印業案中,對資方的要求也有折扣,所以說政府組織在勞資爭議中並非一律偏袒資方,更不是「鎮壓工人運動的工具」,從三個個案都發生罷工,最後工人願意復工看來,社會局在處理勞資爭議上仍然取得一定的成效。
This research focuses on the Shanghai’s Bureau of Social Affairs handling of labor disputes during the civil war era. Primarily, the increasing number of labor disputes between 1945 and 1949 was due to inflation caused by the government’s issuing of considerable amounts of legal tender. Accordingly, conflict began between labor and management because the laborers’ salaries were not sufficient to support their families while the salary increases resulted in higher operating costs for corporations. The local government classified labor disputes into two categories: the first were called strike cases and the second labor dispute cases. After the Second World War, the number of both cases increased significantly. The Bureau of Social Affairs had the responsibility of resolving labor disputes since its establishment in 1927. In May 1946, the Labor Dispute Resolution Committee was established to make final judgments. From the legal perspective, very few cases were judged by the Resolution Committee even though it could take the initiative. The major duty of the committee was to formulate a single set of regulations. This paper looks at the examples of the Meiguang match factory, the hotel industry and the printing industry. After comparing labor and management requests with the final reconciliation agreements, it is found that some requests from labor were turned down by the Bureau of Social Affairs as in the case of the Meigiuang match factory. Likewise, some requests from management were also turned down as in the case of the printing industry. This proves that this government organization did not favor the management side when handling labor disputes. It should not be regarded as a “tool for suppressing labor activities”. Moreover, strikes happened in all three cases but all laborers agreed to return to work after the strikes. Thus to a certain extent, the Bureau of Social Affairs was able to achieve good resolutions when handling labor disputes.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 36, 127-170
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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