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Title: 1971年「中國代表權」問題與韓國政府「中國政策」的轉變
Other Titles: The 1971 Issue of China’s Representation at the UN and the Change in Korea’s China Policy
Authors: 王恩美
Wang, En-mei
Keywords: 中韓關係;臺韓關係;尼克森主義;和解政策;自主國防;自主外交;朴正熙;中國代表權
China-Korea relations;Taiwan-Korea relations;Nixon Doctrine;détente;independent self-defense;independent foreign policy;Park Chung-hee;the representation of China
Date: 2011-11
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 16:00:42 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 1969年7月,尼克森發表「尼克森主義(Nixon Doctrine)」,強調「亞洲的防禦基本上由亞洲負責」,並聲明將與中共協商以使雙方外交關係「正常化」。「尼克森主義」對中華民國與韓國都帶來了很大的衝擊與危機。對中華民國而言,面臨無法確保聯合國「中國代表權」的危機。韓國政府則認為,尼克森宣言將影響朝鮮半島局勢。如果美國改善與中共的關係,並且導致中共取得「中國代表權」,勢必提升北韓在聯合國的地位,進而影響韓國原在聯合國的有利位置。因此,1971年聯合國「中國代表權」更替一事件,不但對中、韓兩國都造成極大的衝擊與危機,也導致中、韓外交互動出現變化。韓國政府開始著手建構「新」的「中韓關係」。\r 本文將討論在1971年國際情勢變動下韓國政府針對「中國代表權」問題的態度與立場,並分析中共取得「中國代表權」後韓國政府採取「中國政策」的變化。韓國將聯合國「中國代表權」更替一事,視為外交上的一大危機。中共取得「中國代表權」後,在「自主防衛」、「自主外交」的壓力下,韓國政府開始改變「中國政策」。
In July 1969, the Nixon Doctrine, enunciated by then U.S. President Richard Nixon, stated in relation to military defense, that “the United States is going to encourage and has a right to expect that this problem will be increasingly handled by, and the responsibility taken by, the Asian nations themselves”. Nixon also announced that the U.S. would negotiate with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to “normalize” U.S.-China relations. The Nixon Doctrine had a significant impact on the Republic of China (ROC) and South Korea, making the former face the crisis of losing Chinese representation at the United Nations (U.N.) and raising tensions on the Korean Peninsula for the later. Should the U.S. improve its relations with the PRC and consequently transfer Chinese representation at the UN to the PRC, North Korea’s status would be secured and South Korea’s status in the U.N. would be threatened. On account of this, the 1971 change of Chinese representation at the U.N. not only jeopardized both the ROC and Korea but also reshaped diplomatic relations between the two nations, leading to South Korea’s establishment of “renewed China-Korea relations”. The article focuses on the South Korean government’s attitude to and stance on the issue of Chinese representation at the UN during the changing international situation in 1971 and analyzes the Korean government’s change in China policy after the PRC became China’s representation at the UN. Under the pressure of independent self-defense and foreign policy, the 1971 event, considered by South Korea as a major diplomatic crisis, began the change in Korea’s China policy.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 36, 171-220
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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