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Title: 內戰時期上海工人工資與食米購買數量的變動關係(1945-1948)
Other Titles: The Correlation among Variable Wages of Shanghai Labors and Number of Rice Purchasing Power during the Period of Civil War (1945-1948)
Authors: 李鎧光
Li, Kai-kuang
Keywords: 工人生活費指數;食米價格;工人工資;食米購買數量
cost living index of labor;rice price;wage of worker;wage of civil servant;rice purchasing power
Date: 2012-11
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 16:23:59 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 國共內戰時期,為了應付戰爭所引起的高度通貨膨脹,中央政府授權地方政府按時發布工人生活費指數,將該指數做為一個倍數,乘上工人在1937年6月的月薪,得出每月實得的工資。上海市政府於1945年9月恢復發布指數,在1946年1月發布兩次指數,使其公正性遭到懷疑。而透過指數與食米價格漲幅的比較,更可以發現:1945年9月到1946年1月,工人生活費指數平均漲幅超過食米價格漲幅,而從1946年2月開始,工人生活費指數調幅遠遠落後於食米價格的漲幅,造成食米購買數量日漸下滑,證明市政府從這個月份開始壓低工人生活費指數。中央政府官員陳立夫、谷正綱也承認利用指數來壓低工人薪資。從社會部的工人工資調查表來分析,以固定5石食米數量為1家5口維持最低生活的標準,早在從1946年12月,幾乎所有的最低薪工人生活陷入貧困。而到了1948年8月,絕大多數高薪技術工人也陷入無法養活1家5口的境地。本文以實際的數字呈現此時期上海工人的薪資,進而能將國共內戰期間工人生活惡化的程度具體的表現出來。總而言之,生活費指數根本不適合做為調整薪資的工具,再加上政策上壓低工人薪資的考量,對該指數動手腳,使得越來越多工人無法維持生活基本所需,所帶來的後果是勞資爭議與社會不安,對地方政府的統治帶來負面影響。
During the period of civil war between the National Government and the Communists, the central government authorized local governments to publicize the cost living index of labor periodically as a basis for labor wage adjustment. This was intended to act as a response to the high inflation arising from the war. The Shanghai City Government began publicizing this index in September 1945 and announced the index twice in January 1946. However, people had doubts about the fairness of this system. By comparing the index with the price of rice, it was clear that the average rise of the labor living index was greater than the rise in the price of rice. However, the cost living index of labor greatly fell behind the increase of the rice price and resulted in decreasing the purchasing power of rice from February 1946. This proved that the city government had forced down the cost living index of labor. The officers of the central government Chen Li-Fu (陳立夫) and Gu Cheng-Gang (谷正綱) also admitted using the index to lower the wages for laborers. From analysis of the Social Department survey on the wages of Shanghai workers, almost 1/3 of workers earning minimum wage had been living in poverty since December 1946. Until August 1948, almost 90% of experienced technical workers could not maintain an normal lifestyle. Apparently, the labor living index was not an appropriate tool for wage adjustment. In addition, with the wage of workers being brought down by new policies, the rise in salaries based on the cost living index of labors could no longer maintain the basic living requirements. This resulted in disputes between employers and laborers which caused unease in the society, and ultimately had an adverse effect on the governance of local government.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 38, 137-194
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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