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Title: 戴季陶的社會革命觀,1919-1920
Other Titles: Tai Chi-t’ao’s Theory on Social Revolution, 1919-1920
Authors: 施純純
Shih, Chun-chun
Keywords: 戴季陶;社會革命;馬克思主義;倫理;中國傳統
Tai Chi-t’ao;social revolution;Marxism;ethic;Chinese tradition
Date: 2013-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 16:24:58 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文主要關注戴季陶於1919-1920年所提出社會革命的構想,以及其構想的特殊之處。如同當時的馬克思主義論者所論述,戴季陶認為經濟結構的變革在社會革命之中佔有關鍵的地位。基於此,戴季陶指出中國社會受到資本主義衝擊而瓦解。在此衝擊之下,出現了大量失業、與倫理及社會關係喪失等現象。戴季陶指出中國社會的重整必須在接受機器工業生產力的經濟基礎上,以中國傳統倫理精神為其要素來重建新社會關係。同時資本主義已使中國內部產生階級分化,因此需要透過革命精英的領導,以勞動者生活的改善為前提,逐步提高勞動者的智識、另外活化其組織,以使其擁有變革資本主義生產關係的力量。本文提出戴季陶社會革命觀的特殊之處:一、他提出以轉化中國傳統文化資源修正資本主義工業社會缺陷的社會設計理念。二、戴季陶認為經濟基礎的變革雖然關鍵,但並不是所有中國問題的解答。他強調人的道德能力與其重建倫理、社會關係的責任。如此,戴季陶提出了一個同時回應資本主義與馬克思主義的一個建立新中國社會的方向。
This paper focuses on Tai Chi-t’ao’s theory on social revolution and its specific features between 1919 and 1920. In line with dominant Marxist discourses at that time, Tai believed that adapting the economic structure is crucial to social revolution. Based on this assumption, Tai pointed out that the disintegration of Chinese society was caused by capitalism. Under the impact of capitalism, unemployment became a prominent phenomenon and Chinese traditional ethics and social relationships were lost. According to Tai, the reconstruction of Chinese society must build upon an economic foundation of accepting the industrial productive forces. Based on this prerequisite, a new form of social relationship could be established under the guidance of Chinese traditional ethics. Moreover, capitalism has already caused class polarization in China. Therefore, Chinese revolutionaries should strive to improve the lives of workers, enlighten them and invigorate their organization. These conditions would give workers the propensity to change the capitalist relations of production. In this essay, I articulate two specific characteristics of Tai’s theory. Firstly, Tai provided a blueprint to fix the flaws of Western capitalism using Chinese cultural heritage. Secondly, despite the transformation of economic construction being a key point in bringing about a social revolution, it is not the panacea for all China’s problems. Tai argued that one’s moral abilities and responsibilities of reconstructing ethics and social relationships are also crucial in his conceptualization of social revolution in China. For the above reasons, Tai Chi-t’ao proposed a new direction for the establishment of a new China which responds not only to capitalism but also to Marxism.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 39, 145-182
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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