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|Other Titles:||Creating a Name for Oneself: The Practice of Ting Bi Ji from the Golden Age of the Tang Dynasty to the Northern Song Dynasty|
Ting Bi Ji;Ti Ming;Bureaucratic hierarchy;Bureaucratic culture;Political ideology
|Issue Date:||2016-06-02 16:49:26 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||唐宋以後，官署的廳壁刻有歷任官員的題名，而且，在題名旁邊，通常附有敘述的記文，唐人將二者合稱為廳壁記，至宋世以後，始有題名記之稱。這些記文早為制度史研究者所重，本文則另從新興的官僚文化活動的角度，理解、探討盛唐至北宋這類官僚階層在官署建構自身群體歷史的行為。\r 首先，盛唐時期在郎官群體推動下，官僚階層興起刊刻廳壁記的風氣，最初壁記刊著「前政遷除出入」，滿足任職者預示仕途前景的需求，並具有自我鼓勵的作用。長遠來看，隋唐以後，世家大族仕宦的世襲地位不再，官吏於官廳開始建構「我曹春秋」的文化，體現出唐代士族更看重仕途和官職榮耀的心態，這類活動，或可視為他們面對政治地位不再受到保障的現實，在文化上所採取的一種回應行動。 其次，唐宋兩代官吏刊刻廳壁記的內涵，也出現明顯的變化。唐代官吏從事這類活動是以頌美一己之政為主，成為官員另類的「善政碑」，中晚唐時期，只有部分廳壁記表達勸戒施政得失的思想，屬於潛伏的思想支流。比較大的變化進一步發生在北宋中期以後。大批出身基層社會的士人入仕後，他們開始刻意避談今政的內容，鼓吹不作褒貶評價，旨在批評記文既有歌功誦德之弊端。他們刊刻題名的理念，也發生了顯著的變化，視題名為官吏「施政行事，存諸民論」的地方史，且賦予這類活動濃厚的傳政理念和歷史意識。|
The practice of carving the titles of government officials onto the walls of government offices originated during the Tang and Song Dynasties. Generally, descriptive texts were carved next to the titles. This practice was referred to as 廳壁記 (Ting Bi Ji; wall writings) in the Tang Dynasty and as 題名 (Ti Ming; inscribing one’s name) in the Song Dynasty. In past research, these texts have been valuable for scholars studying the history of political systems. The present study applied the perspective of emerging bureaucratic and cultural events to understand and examine how these historic Chinese bureaucrats constructed their collective history in the governmental regime between the golden age of the Tang Dynasty and the Northern Song Dynasty. Government officials in the golden age of the Tang Dynasty eagerly promoted the practice of Ting Bi Ji, which eventually became a trend. The earliest Ting Bi Ji texts documented changes of government position, with the seeming permanency of the inscription reassuring the jobholder with respect to his career prospects. After the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the hereditary status of officials from wealthy families began to wane. Therefore, officials started establishing the culture of 我曹春秋 (Wo Cao Chun Qiu; creating a name for oneself), highlighting the attitude of Tang Dynasty nobles toward their careers and positions. The establishment of such culture can be deemed as the Tang Dynasty nobles’ cultural response to their political statuses no longer being guaranteed. Significant changes can be observed between the Ting Bi Ji content of the two dynasties. Officials in the Tang Dynasty participated in such activities primarily to praise their political accomplishments, with the practice of Ting Bi Ji creating unique political milestones. During the mid- to late-Tang Dynasty, only a portion of the Ting Bi Ji texts were exhortations regarding political gains and losses, which denoted the underlying ideology. Changes that were more substantial occurred after the mid-Northern Song Dynasty. Numerous officers of lower social status began serving the government. These officials avoided discussing current political statuses. Their refusal to comment on contemporary political affairs was aimed at criticizing the boasting and exaggeration that the practice of Ting Bi Ji encouraged. These officials’ conception of Ti Ming also underwent considerable change. Ti Ming was subsequently considered a method for creating local history that reflected public opinion regarding the officials’ political actions. Thus, the practice of Ti Ming is endowed with considerable political ideology and historical consciousness.
|Relation:||政治大學歷史學報, 44, 43-81|
The Journal of History
|Appears in Collections:||[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文|
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