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Title: 儒家道統在傳統中國政治上的核心價值與發展—兼論孫中山的革命思想基礎
Other Titles: The Core Value and the Development of Confucian Orthodoxy in Traditional Chinese Politics - the Basis of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s Revolutionary Theory
Authors: 劉文仕
Liu, Wen-Shih
Keywords: 道統;正統;異端;中道;大一統;大居正;道尊於勢;藉天抑君;從道不從君;創造性轉化
Confucian orthodoxy;heresy;the doctrine of the mean;value system;creative transformation
Date: 2005-06
Issue Date: 2016-06-08 11:31:58 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「道統」即儒家根本思想或核心理論世代相承的系統、方向。其實質內涵,即指「孔子之道」,由易經、尚書、論語、春秋、大學、中庸、禮記……等諸典籍型塑而成,包含著複雜多樣的學說內容。\r在2000年政黨輪替以前,「道統」曾被普遍地認同為我國的立國精神,提供國人免除不確定的方向感;但隨著民主轉型、威權解構,「道統」的價值開始被懷疑,立國精神隱晦不明,國家方向混沌分歧,國民喪失共享的基本價值。儒家道統所建構的價值體系,究竟是已過時?抑或仍存在堅韌的生命力,可以繼續引領國家未來的發展走向?這個問題的關鍵,就在於「道統」內涵的認知及其在當代角色扮演的共識。\r就此,中山先生曾自承他的革命主義「有因襲吾國固有之思想」,為期與諸民族並趨於世界,以馴致大同,他所持的方針為:「發揚吾固有之文化,且吸收世界之文化而光大之」。然中山先生主張要繼承和恢復的固有文化?其概念涵攝範疇如何?一般都認為係「堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武、周公、孔子」一脈相傳的儒家道統;此觀點是否為孫中山先生的本意?不無疑義。\r「道統」即儒家根本思想或核心理論世代相承的系統、方向。其實質內涵,即指「孔子之道」,由易經、尚書、論語、春秋、大學、中庸、禮記……等諸典籍型塑而成,包含著複雜多樣的學說內容。\r在2000年政黨輪替以前,「道統」曾被普遍地認同為我國的立國精神,提供國人免除不確定的方向感;但隨著民主轉型、威權解構,「道統」的價值開始被懷疑,立國精神隱晦不明,國家方向混沌分歧,國民喪失共享的基本價值。儒家道統所建構的價值體系,究竟是已過時?抑或仍存在堅韌的生命力,可以繼續引領國家未來的發展走向?這個問題的關鍵,就在於「道統」內涵的認知及其在當代角色扮演的共識。\r就此,中山先生曾自承他的革命主義「有因襲吾國固有之思想」,為期與諸民族並趨於世界,以馴致大同,他所持的方針為:「發揚吾固有之文化,且吸收世界之文化而光大之」。然中山先生主張要繼承和恢復的固有文化?其概念涵攝範疇如何?一般都認為係「堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武、周公、孔子」一脈相傳的儒家道統;此觀點是否為孫中山先生的本意?不無疑義。\r本文即本追求真實的態度,一方面逐一剖析覆蓋在「道統」上的附加物,予以重新定位、評價,重尋「儒家道統」的價值。一方面就中山先生革命思想基礎的內涵,進行必要的考證,並加予檢驗,期還原其本來面貌。
The term “Confucian orthodoxy” used herein pertains to the core thinking of Confucianism or the tenet and direction such thinking has evolved over time. In substance it refers to the way of Confucius shaped by such Chinese classics as The Book of Changes, The Book of History, The Confucian Analects, The Spring and Autumn Annals, The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean, The Book of Rites, and so on, that is extensive in theory and scope. Before the toppling of the Nationalist Party (better known as Kuomintang, KMT) Confucian orthodoxy was prevailingly believed to be the nation’s founding spirit, giving the people a sense of direction in a time of tremendous turmoil. Nonetheless as the nation develops toward democracy, the Jiang autocracy dissolved, the very value of Confucian orthodoxy begins to be scrutinized, the nation’s founding spirit became blurred, and the ethos diverged: the people lost their common value. Has the value system predicated on Confucian orthodoxy been outdated? Or does it still have some validity in guiding the nation in its development? The key to these issues lies with the cognition, the interpretation of Confucian orthodoxy and the consensus of its role. On which Dr. Sun Yat-sen in line with his revolution theory “following the Chinese philosophical heritage” advocated harmony among the nation’s ethic groups, then harmony among nations, and adopted the direction - “further the nation’s cultural heritage, and absorb all cultures in the world to augment”. Yet what culture exactly had Dr. Sun Yat-sen striven to restore and perpetuate? What exactly were its delineation and scope? It has been generally believed to be the Confucian orthodoxy in the linage of Yao, Sheng, Yu, Tong, Wen, Wu, Duke of Zhou and Confucius. But is such viewpoint what Dr. Sun Yat-sen intended? The question begs examination. One purpose of the study is to pursue the people’s actual, true attitude towards which while stripping off one by one those imposed on Confucian orthodoxy to reposition, evaluate and allocate the very value of the Confucian orthodoxy. Another purpose is to examine, verify the context of Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolution theory, thus restoring its authenticity.
Relation: 中山人文社會期刊, 13(1),1-35
Dr. Sun Yat-sen Graduate Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[中山人文社會科學期刊] 期刊論文

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