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Title: 從美國進步主義與威爾遜理念反思中山先生的憲政思想
Other Titles: A Reflection on Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s Constitutional Thoughts from the Perspective of Progressivism and Wilson’s Ideas
Authors: 謝政諭
Hsieh, Chen-Yu
Keywords: 進步主義;社會達爾文主義;馬克思主義;憲政思想;民族自決;直接民權;國會政府;民生史觀;威爾遜;孫中山
progressivism;social Darwinism;marxism;constitutional thoughts;national self-determination;direct civil rights;congressional government;the people’s livelihood interpretation of history;Woodrow Wilson;Dr. Sun Yat-Sen
Date: 2007-12
Issue Date: 2016-06-08 11:47:48 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 十九世紀中葉美國內戰後,在工業化快速發展的衝擊下,產生種種政治、經濟與社會問題,政府應扮演何種角色?在諸多結構轉型中,思想界與實務界逐漸產生對「社會達爾文主義」與古典自由主義的「自由放任」之批判,進步主義思想即源於此發展而來。\r本文藉由美國進步主義的思想內涵,找出若干線索,如亨利‧喬治的單一稅、威廉氏的社會史觀等,尤其是威爾遜在《國會政府》、《憲法政府》、《新自由》等理念及其推動的改革政策如:「反托拉斯法」、保護工會與勞工的「勞工憲章」、「聯邦儲備銀行委員會」、「國會政府」、「戰爭與和平」及「巴黎和會」等國內、外重大決策,其對中山先生革命事業與憲政思想發展過程產生的影響,並且兼顧比較與創新。例如中山先生從對「議會內閣」的贊揚,到對「代議政治」的批評,以及建構「民族自決」、「權能區分」、「直接民權」、「萬能政府」、「民生史觀」等與時俱進的憲政思潮即是明顯之例。本文反思中山先生思想的源頭與時代性,他捨歐陸的馬克思激進的革命路線而取美國進步主義的改良路線,作為他憲政架構的主要思維,及其對後世的影響加以探討。
The impact of industrialization since mid-nineteenth century has brought about a variety of problems after American civil war, such as whether social differentiation will go into polarization, and what roles the government should play today. Under the transformation of many social and economical structures, people began to criticize “Social Darwinism” and the “Laissez-faire” of classical liberalism, originating the development of progressivism. This article discusses the ideas of progressivism in America, including the theory of Single Tax proposed by Henry George, Maurice William’s social interpretation of history, and especially the concepts discussed in “Congressional Government”, “Constitutional Government”, “New Freedom” by Woodrow Wilson, who promoted reformation policies such as the antitrust laws, “Labor Charter” to protect unions and labors, Federal Reserve Board, War and Peace and “Paris Peace Conference”. Those ideas influenced the building of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s constitutional thoughts and revolution career, and he developed some comparison, innovation, and reactive thinking, which can be shown from his praise to the “parliament” to the criticism of “representative government”, and from the timeless streams of constitutional thoughts such as “National Self-Determination”, “the separation of people’s right power from government’s power”, “direct civil rights”, “competent government” and “the people’s livelihood Interpretation of History”. This article aims to examine the timelessness of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s thoughts which value American progressivism instead of European Marxism and to rethink the origin of the thoughts and the following influences on the China descending generations.
Relation: 中山人文社會期刊, 15(2),33-73
Dr. Sun Yat-sen Graduate Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[中山人文社會科學期刊] 期刊論文

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