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Title: 國家生命與社會生活-梁啟超的國家理論
Other Titles: State Being and Social Existence: Liang Chi-Chao’s Theory of State
Authors: 張道義
Jang, Daw-Yih
Contributors: 徐國慶
Kuo-Ching Hsu
Keywords: 梁啟超;新民說;君主立憲;國家生命;社會生活;國家理論
Liang Chi-Chao;Liang Chi-Chao;constitutional monarchy;state being;social existence;theory of state
Date: 2007-12
Issue Date: 2016-06-08 11:48:03 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文的目的在探討梁啟超的國家理論,即其有關國家權力正當性和國家存在目的的思想。藉由梁啟超的論述,期望能對於當今我們憲政體制和國家權力的機制,提供一種不同的思考面向,使我們跳脫以政黨政治造成的對立,回到國家理論的原點,重新思考國家存在的目的。回顧歷史發展,西方社會面對國家權力遞變而造成社會秩序動亂問題時,對於國家權力正當性和國家存在目的有其深刻的思考,並且形成國家學的學術傳統。本文認為梁啟超的國家思想中,提出「新民說」重新思考國家存在的基礎,從一個道德社會的基礎上,重新塑造國民特性,並且形成個人與個人、個人與社會,以及個人與國家之間的道德規範,形成國家權力正當性以及國家存在目的的基礎,並得以建構國家的權力組織。這種基於社會事實的國家觀,由下往上的形塑國家生命,或許正是梁啟超當年未竟全功的君主立憲的歷史全貌,那就是社會生活的穩定才是國家發展的目的,為了達到這個目的,任何社會生活的多元現狀必定構成國家發展的真實基礎。認識如是的歷史規律以及它的不可逆性,不僅有助於我們在憲政主義叢林中尋得真正的出路,也足以舒緩台灣社會當下的政治燥熱,當社會成員苦悶於失序、茫然的政治前景,就值得我們回顧古典的問題,重新思考共同生活的意義。
This paper is to explore Liang Chi-Chao’s theory of state, which proposes the thoughts about the legitimate of power and the aim of state being. To contemplate the aim of state being, we expect, through the discourse of Liang Chi-Chao, to offer different thinking dimensions to our current constitution and the power of state so as to make us escape the opposition of party politics and return to the origin of state theory. In retrospect to the development of the western history, when the society stayed in social disorder as a result of change of state power, the profound contemplation of the legitimate of power and the aim of state being thus emerged, further forming the academic tradition of state science (Staatswissenschaft). This paper considers that Liang proposed “The new people” to rethink the foundation of state being, rebuild the traits of civics based on the moral society, bring up the moral norms among individual, society and state, and construct the organizations of state power as well as the legitimate of state power and the aim of state being. The perspective of state, in view of social fact, mold state being in a bottom-up process. Probably the main purpose of state development is the stabilization of social existence, which is exactly the historical full view of the constitutional monarchy that Liang had ever strived for. In order to reach the purpose, the authentic basis of state development must be composed of the diversification in any social existence. Knowing such a historical dynamic law and its irreversibility, not only are we able to find a way out in the jungle of constitutionalism but moderate the political torrid enthusiasm in Taiwan. When social members confront the chaotic and puzzled political future with depression, it pays for us to look back to the classical questions and reflect the significance of commonwealth.
Relation: 中山人文社會期刊, 15(2),75-120
Dr. Sun Yat-sen Graduate Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[中山人文社會科學期刊] 期刊論文

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