Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/97986


Title: 國際私法上之收養
Other Titles: Taiwanese Private International Law on Inter-country Adoption
Authors: 蔡華凱
Tsai, Hua-Kai
Keywords: 跨國收養;國際裁判管轄;住所地國管轄;分別適用(分配性適用);累積性適用;並行適用;夫妻國籍不同時之收養;隱藏性反致;涉外民事法律適用法第五十四條;涉外民事法律適用法第十八條
Inter-country Adoption;Cumulative Application;Distributive Application;Hidden Renvoi;International Jurisdiction;Jurisdiction based on Domicile;Adoption When the Spouses are in different nationality;Taiwanese Private International Law Article 54;Taiwanese Private International Law Article 18
Date: 2012-04
Issue Date: 2016-06-17 11:36:21 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 關於涉外收養,日本的舊國際私法選法規則過去與我國的修正前涉外民事法律適用法相同,採依各該收養者被收養者之本國法之分配性的聯繫因素,結果不但沒讓涉外收養關係容易成立,實務上反而窒礙難行,最主要的原因在於分配性的適用往往變成累積性的適用。又,特別是以未成年子女為對象之收養,多係養子至養親之環境下生活,顯與養親的本國法之間具有比較密切之關係,日本遂於一九八九年全面修正涉外身分關係的選法規則之際,針對涉外收養揚棄分配性的適用。本文檢討我國涉外收養裁判之結果,發現我國法院案例具有一共同的現象,即是將分配性的立法解釋成累積性的適用。換言之,日本過去修法的最主要理由,亦正發生在我國的裁判實務當中。此次我國新修正的涉外民事法律適用法第五十四條第一項的規定,完全承襲修正前第十八條第一項的舊規定。本文之目的在於檢討並分析涉外收養的立法與解釋,並指出在我國學說的普遍認知與實務間的解釋與適用顯然存在相當大的落差。此外,本文針對收養人國籍不同時的準據法適用問題以及隱藏性反致之適用問題,進行檢討與分析。
Under the current choice-of-law rules on inter-country adoption in Taiwanese private international law, the adopter and the child shall be governed by his/her/their national law, respectively. The application of this rule is known as a distributive approach and the rule was made by reference to the old Japanese private international law. In 1989, Japanese private international law revised the choice-of-law rule on intercountry adoption, abandoned the distributive approach based on the reason that, the distributive application tended to be construed as a cumulative approach by Japanese courts. As a result, inter-country adoption was not easy to be established in Japan due to the fact that the adopter was not only governed by his/her national law, but also was governed by the child’s national law, and vice versa under the judicial practice in Japan. Therefore, the applicable law to the intercountry adoption in Japanese private international law was replaced by a new rule that the requirements of inter-country adoption shall be governed solely by the national law of the prospective adoptive parents. The situation that occurred in previous Japanese judicial practice is now taking place in Taiwanese judicial practice. Most of the Taiwanese courts construed the choice-of-law rules on international adoption into cumulative approach. As a result, the adopter is governed not only by his/her national law but also governed by the child’s national law, and vice versa. Unfortunately, the newly revised choice-of-law rules on inter- country adoption in Taiwanese private law maintain the same approach as the current rule. In addition to the issue above-mentioned, some Taiwanese courts apply hidden renvoi in cases in which the national law of parties are common-law which takes a jurisdictional approach to adoption. This article argues that the application of hidden renvoi to the jurisdictional approach not only lacks a theoretical basis but also contradicts the tenor of renvoi.
Relation: 法學評論126,57-104頁
Chengchi law review
Data Type: article
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