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Title: 再論中央政府體制之改革展望——法國○八修憲之啟發
Other Titles: Further Discussion on the Reform of ROC's Governmental System: The Perspective of French Constitutional Reform of 2008
Authors: 陳淳文
Chen, Chwen-Wen
Keywords: 法國第五共和;半總統制;少數政府;法國二○○八年修憲;議員候補制度;副署制度;總理總統制
French Fifth Republic;Semi-presidential System;Minority Government;French Constitutional Amendment in 2008;Representative Alternate System;Countersign System;Premierpresidential System
Date: 2013-02
Issue Date: 2016-06-17 16:58:31 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 我國現行中央政府體制究竟應屬於何種體制?是一個長期爭論不休的問題。特別是自二○○○年起中央政府政權輪替之後,出現由立法院少數黨執掌行政權,為期八年的少數政府時期,期間引發諸多激烈的憲政衝突。而憲政體制的定位問題,常在這些憲政衝突中被激發,甚至被認為是造成衝突的主要原因。\r本文擬由憲政衝突與憲法爭議出發,先整理司法院大法官自九七修憲後處理憲政爭議時,對我國現行憲政體制所採取的立場。在確定現行法對憲政體制的界定之後,再進一步分析我國現制的主要缺失;以及提出如何改善這些缺失的政策方向。若從比較法的視角來看改革的展望,本文發現法國二○○八年的實際修憲內容,以及對於其半總統制改革方向的主流見解,都是朝向限縮總統權力與向議會內閣制傾斜的方向,換言之,就是朝向以總理為權力中心的半總統制來發展。然而我國現行憲法的規範架構,其實就是以行政院長為行政首長的半總統制,正是法國菁英認為較為理想的半總統制之類型。就此而言,只要透過適度的修法調整相應配套制度,即使無法透過修憲程序而改革,我國現行憲法所規範的憲政體制仍有良善運作的可能。
The question about which governmental system should be in place in the ROC has long been a subject of debate. Since the change in government in 2000, such disputes have become more intense while the executive power is held by the minority party in the Legislative Yuan. The minority government, which lasted 8 years, has led to fierce constitutional conflicts. The positioning of the constitutional regime has often been raised in disputes, and has also been considered to be the main reason for these controversies. Beginning with constitutional conflicts and disputes, this paper summarizes the position taken by the Grand Justices in dealing with constitutional controversies since the passage of the Constitutional Amendment in 1997. Subsequently, we clarify the definition of the actual constitutional regime, analyze the major deficiencies in the current system, and identify ways of how to improve it. The future prospect of constitutional reform can be discussed from the perspective of comparative law. It is found that both the particle content of the French Constitutional Amendment in 2008 and the mainstream views about the reform direction of the semi-presidential system are all preferable to the reduction of the power of president, and forward to the parliamentary cabinet system. In other words, the argument is developed toward semi-presidential system, which takes the prime minister as the power center. In fact, the constitutional framework of the ROC is a semi-presidential system, which takes the premier of the Executive Yuan as the head of the executive branch. It is indeed the more satisfactory semi-presidential system, as has been noted by French elites. Practically speaking, without going through the procedure of constitutional amendment, the existing system of the ROC may be wellfunctioning as long as it makes appropriate adjustments.
Relation: 法學評論, 131,1-88頁
Chengchi law review
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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