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|Title:||群眾路線 2.0: 數位治理與中國政權的正當性|
Mass Line 2.0: How China’s Mass Line Governance in Cyberspace Enhances Regime Legitimacy
Griffin, Kyle Martin
Kyle Martin Griffin
online state-society relations
|Issue Date:||2021-01-04 11:29:28 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||群眾路線是中國的治理思想，其特點是政治精英和群眾之間的高度直接接觸。 群眾向精英們提出他們的要求，而精英們則有義務將之內部化並藉由國家行動滿足這些要求。 群眾路線治理力圖加強這些互動，從而建立一種響應公眾需求的制度。 現有的群眾路線相關研究顯示，該意識形態與中國（現實世界）的國內政治社會學具有長遠的關聯。 文獻中為被討論的是該意識形態是否影響線上的國家與社會關係。 因此，值得探究的是，網絡空間中是否存在「群眾路線」？ 鑑於一般公民大部分閒暇時間都在使用網路，網絡空間可謂中國社會生活的主要場域，更凸顯了前述問題的重要性。 本文通過通用系統理論構建了「群眾路線」概念，以解釋中國的電子政務和線上的國家與社會關係。 本研究主張現今中國社會存在著「數位」群眾路線，它透過中國政府的電子政務被奉行與實現，亦可於政府經營的線上機構中觀察到此數位群眾路線的現行情況。本文審視了電子政務案例，並針對各種案例數據進行了定性檢驗，包括政策文件，個人陳述，在線機構的設計和功能，網民行為以及數值調查和索引。 本文支持以下觀點：（1）政權設計其在線機構，以提供管道促進精英與群眾的直接互動； （2）這些互動可以使社會需求從民眾端流向政府端，從而激發響應性的國家行動； （3）社會需求是由大眾政治參與形成的，政府的回應是經由溝通後的決議而產生的； （4）政權提供的溝通管道繞過次級當局，直接面對民眾，以破壞地方官員的阻撓行為； （5）機構透過宣傳「政府賦監督權於民」的消息以動員網民監督機構； （6）「群眾參與，政府回應」的模式增強了大眾對政治效能的意識，進而支持了政權的合法性； （7）此溝通制度的設計在於鼓勵網民使用國家偏愛的溝通管道參與政治； （8）「道德權威」提供了社會契約，界定了數位群眾路線中政治精英與公眾的互動模式。 該研究具有重要的理論意義，因為與現有文獻不同，現有的文獻定調政權回應的動機為防禦性的，是群眾需求趨動被動產生的反應。本論文表明，在網絡空間中，類似的社會過程是由政權主動推行且具目標導向的國家行動。|
The Mass Line is a Chinese governance ideology. It is characterized by a high rate of direct engagement between political elites and the masses. The masses engage elites with their demands, while elites are obligated to internalize and meet those demands through state action. Mass Line governance seeks to strengthen these interactions, thereby cultivating a regime responsive to the public’s needs. Existing research into the Mass Line shows the ideology’s enduring relevance to China’s (real-world) domestic political sociology. Yet to be examined is whether the ideology affects online state-society relations. Thus, it is worthwhile to ask, does the Mass Line exist in cyberspace? This is especially important given that the average citizen spends most of their discretionary time online making cyberspace a major sphere of Chinese social life. This paper frame’s the Mass Line concept through general systems theory to explain Chinese e-governance and online state-society relations. It argues that there exists a digital Mass Line. The digital Mass Line is pursued and realized through Chinese e-governance and can be observed functioning through state-operated online institutions. This paper examines the e-government case. The argument is qualitatively tested against a diversity of case data, including policy documents, personal statements, the design and function of online institutions, netizen behavior, and numerical surveys and indexes. This paper supports the view that: (1) the regime designs its online institutions to enable and foster elite-mass direct engagement; (2) that engagement allows social demands to flow from society to state, stimulating responsive state action; (3) demands are generated through mass political participation and responsiveness through communicated resolutions; (4) channels for direct engagement bypasses subordinate authorities undermining obstructive behavior from local officials; (5) the institutions mobilize netizen watchdogs by disseminating oversight enabling information; (6) the participation-responsiveness dynamic supports regime legitimacy by enhancing the public’s sense of political efficacy; (7) institutional design features mobilize netizens to participate through state-preferred communication channels; and (8) “moral authority” provides the social contract that circumscribes online Mass Line modes of elite-mass interactions. The research is theoretically significant because, unlike in the existing literature that characterizes the regime’s responsiveness as defensively motivated and a reaction to the masses’ demands, this paper shows that, in cyberspace, analogous social processes result from a proactive regime and goal-oriented state action.
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