Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/99679


Title: 工作記憶和英語為外語的閱讀兩者間的關係--以嘉義市一所國中為個案
Relationship between Working Memory and EFL Reading Comprehension: A Case Study of Chiayi Junior High School Students
Authors: 歐雅婷
Ou, Irene
Contributors: 余明忠
Yu, Ming Chung
歐雅婷
Ou, Irene
Keywords: 工作記憶
英文閱讀
字面理解
推論理解
工作記憶閱讀廣度測驗
working memory
English reading comprehension
literal comprehension
inferential comprehension
reading span task
Date: 2016
Issue Date: 2016-08-03 11:41:05 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究旨在探討工作記憶對英文閱讀理解的相關性,而其中更細分去看工作記憶對字面理解和推論理解的影響。另一方面,測量工作記憶的閱讀廣度作業(RST)在研究工作記憶和閱讀理解時常被忽略不同作業測量是否對研究結果有所影響,而廣為研究採用的是辨識閱讀廣度(recognition-RST)以及再認閱讀廣度(recall-RST)。因此,本研究除了探討工作記憶對英文字面和推論理解的相關性,也欲比較此兩種不同閱讀廣度作業對於工作記憶和閱讀理解的關係是否有所不同。
實驗對象是嘉義市立研究者任教的一所國中,全校37個班級,其中抽出可以配合研究過程的學生,總計190人,來自七個班級。這些班級的學生都有各自原本班級要進行的課程,因此為了施測方便,以班級為單位,不同班級完成不同的工作記憶廣度,會使研究有辦法進行,因此,本研究並無設定特定的分組規準,七個班級會分兩頭取得各自的工作記憶廣度—也就是四個班級完成再認閱讀廣度(recall-RST)以及閱讀測驗; 另外三個班級辨識閱讀廣度(recognition-RST)以及閱讀測驗。其中使用的閱讀測驗旨在評量參與者字面閱讀理解和推論閱讀理解的能力。研究結果顯示再認閱讀廣度的工作記憶對字面閱讀理解的相關性、和推論閱讀理解的相關性、和整個閱讀理解的相關性皆未達顯著相關性。另外,辨識閱讀廣度的工作記憶對字面閱讀理解的相關性、和推論閱讀理解的相關性、和整個閱讀理解的相關性也皆未達顯著相關性。此次研究結果和Ruppe 等人(2006)以及Sweller(1994) 的研究一樣,主張工作記憶和字面閱讀理解關係不大。至於推論閱讀理解部分,本研究針對工作記憶和推論閱讀理解的相關性和其他研究則不符,許多研究主張工作記憶對高階認知學習(high-level cognition activities) 有極大的幫助 (Anderson et al., 1996; Altepkin & Ercetin, 2001; Baddeley, 2012; Conway & Engle, 1994; Daneman & Hannon, 2007)。此處和其他研究主張意見分歧,可以從Gathercole和Alloway (2007 ) 的說法來解釋,工作記憶對於學習認知活動的相關性是有所限制的。談及影響工作記憶和推論理解或是與其他較具挑戰性的認知活動時,尚有很多相關因素在研究中需要考量,例如參與者的閱讀技巧、專注力和背景知識。最後,本研究欲探討辨識閱讀廣度(recognition-RST)以及再認閱讀廣度(recall-RST)對於工作記憶再閱讀的影響力是否有所差別,迴歸分析表示此兩種閱讀廣度測到的工作記憶對閱讀的影響力無顯著差異; 針對這點,有些學者主張閱讀廣度雖不同,但都能測驗到相同的工作記憶(Turner & Engle, 1989),然而也另外有學者主張辨識和再認閱讀廣度測驗到的工作記憶有所不同(Alptekin & Ercetin, 2009; Unsworth & Engle, 2007)。因此未來需要更完善的研究設計和實施,排除其他影響工作記憶和閱讀相關的因素,例如分組規準、參與者的閱讀技巧、背景知識等,才能更加確定工作記憶對字面和推論理解的影響力,以及不同的工作記憶測量工具對工作記憶影響力的差異。
This study examined the influence of working memory (WM henceforth) on literal and inferential comprehensions in second language (L2) reading. WM refers to individuals’ cognitive process in which new and old information is temporarily stored and simultaneously processed. The strength of WM enables individuals to accomplish complex tasks, such as reading and reasoning. It sounds invincible, but it has its limitation (Baddeley, 2000; Conrad & Hull, 1964). The capacity of WM (WMC) represents the abstract concept of WM and is often measured with reading span tasks (RSTs). Also this study was aimed to investigate whether the influence of WM on reading comprehensions (RC henceforth) was different when WM is measured with different RSTs. According to Alptekin and Ercetin (2009), the difference of measurement tasks about WMC is often not taken into consideration in research. Thus, the investigator measured the participants’ WMC with two main RSTs, a recall-RST and a recognition-RST, and the results were later analyzed with their performance of L2 literal and inferential comprehensions.
The participants in this study were 190 students from 7 classes in a Chiayi City Junior High School with a total of 37 classes. Due to the limitation of course schedules at school, participants had to attend their own classes. The investigator decided to group entire classes into same WM group in order to carry out the study. Thus, no specific grouping criterion was applied—the participants from three classes accomplished a recognition-RST and a RC test; the participants of the rest accomplished a recall-RST and a RC test. The test of RC contained four passages with five literal and five inferential RC questions, and was designed to assess participants’ ability to read literally and inferentially.
The findings showed that WMC measured with a recall-RST had no correlations with participants’ literal, inferential and overall RC. In the recognition-RST group of WM, the correlations of WM and RC was not significant, either. The current study and previous studies all suggested that WMC had no influence on literal RC (Rupp et al., 2006; Sweller, 1994). However, the result of WMC in this study did not successfully demonstrate positive correlation with inferential RC, which was against previous findings (Anderson et al., 1996; Altepkin & Ercetin, 2001; Baddeley, 2012; Conway & Engle, 1994; Daneman & Hannon, 2007). This result suggested that it was not easy to relate WM to the performance of inferential RC. Though the strength of WM is highly related to complex tasks, according to Gathercole and Alloway (2007), WM is unfortunately limited in certain ways regarding its influence on cognitive activities. Relevant factors, such as participants’ reading skills, attention to each current task and background knowledge, if not controlled, might interfere with the positive influence of WM on RC. Further research is warranted to fully examine the relationship between WM and RST in terms of one’s ability to read literally and inferentially. 
Reference: Adams, A. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Phonological working memory and speech
production in preschool children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 38(2), 403-414.
Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., &Lebiere, C. (1996). Working memory: Activation
limitations on retrieval. Cognitive psychology, 30(3), 221-256.
Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2009). Assessing the relationship of working memory to
L2 reading: Does the nature of comprehension process and reading span task
make a difference?. System, 37(4), 627-639.
Alptekin, C., &Erçetin, G. (2010). The role of L1 and L2 working memory in literal
and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. Journal Of Research in Reading, 33(2), 206-219.
Alptekin, C., &Erçetin, G. (2011). Effects of working memory capacity and content
familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. TESOL
Quarterly, 45, 2011.
Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of verbal
learning and verbal behavior, 22(3), 261-295.
Atkinson, R. C. and Shiffrin, R. M. (1968) Human Memory: A proposed system and
its control processes. In The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in
research and theory (K. W. Spence (ed.), vol. 2, pp.89-195. New York: Academic Press.
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. The psychology of learning and
motivation, 8, 47-89.
Baddeley, A., Logie, R., Nimmo-Smith, I., & Brereton, N. (1985). Components of fluent
reading. Journal of memory and language, 24(1), 119-131.
Baddeley, A. (1996). The fractionation of working memory. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences, 93(24), 13468-13472.
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?.
Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(11), 417-423.
Baddeley, A. D. (2001). Is working memory still working?. American
Psychologist, 56(11), 851.
Baddeley, A. D. (2002). Is working memory still working?. European psychologist, 7(2),
85.
Baddeley, A. D., Logie, R. H., Della Sala, S., MacPherson, S. E., & Cocchini, G.
(2002). Concurrent performance of two memory tasks: Evidence for domain-specific working memory systems. Memory & Cognition, 30(7), 1086-1095.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory and language: an overview. Journal of
communication disorders, 36(3), 189-208.
Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. Oxford University Press.
Baddeley, A. (2012). Working memory: theories, models, and controversies. Annual
review of psychology, 63, 1-29.
Berninger, V. W. (1999). Coordinating transcription and text generation in working
memory during composing: Automatic and constructive processes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22(2), 99-112.
Bishop, D. V., & Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between
specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31(7), 1027-1050.
Blalock, L. D., & McCabe, D. P. (2011). Proactive interference and practice effects in
visuospatial working memory span task performance. Memory, 19(1), 83-91.
Borella, E., Carretti, B., & De Beni, R. (2008). Working memory and inhibition
across the adult life-span. Actapsychologica, 128(1), 33-44.
Brown, G. D. A., & Hulme, C. (1992). Cognitive psychology and second language
processing: The role of short-term memory. In R. J. Harris (Ed.), Cognitive processing in bilinguals (pp.105-121). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004).Children's reading comprehension ability:
Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills.
Journal of educational psychology, 96(1), 31.
Calvo, M. G. (2001). Working memory and inferences: Evidence from eye fixations
during reading. Memory, 9(4-6), 365-381.
Carretti, B., Borella, E., Cornoldi, C., & De Beni, R. (2009). Role of working memory
in explaining the performance of individuals with specific reading
comprehension difficulties: A meta-analysis. Learning and Individual
Differences, 19(2), 246-251.
Carroll, D. (2007). Psychology of language. Cengage Learning.
Chase, W. G., & Ericsson, K. A. (1982). Skill and working memory. Psychology of
learning and motivation, 16, 1-58.
Chiappe, P., Hasher, L., & Siegel, L. S. (2000). Working memory, inhibitory control,
and reading disability. Memory & Cognition, 28(1), 8-17.
Chun, D. M., & Scott Payne, J. (2004). What makes students click: Working memory
and look-up behavior. System, 32(4), 481-503.
Clarke, M. A. (1980). The short circuit hypothesis of ESL reading—or when language
competence interferes with reading performance. The Modern Language Journal, 64(2), 203-209.
Conrad, R., & Hull, A. J. (1964). Information, acoustic confusion and memory
span. British journal of psychology, 55(4), 429-432.
Conway, A. R., & Engle, R. W. (1994). Working memory and retrieval: a
resource-dependent inhibition model. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
General, 123(4), 354.
Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., &
Engle, R. W. (2005) Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and
user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 769-786. doi:10.3758/ BF03196772.
Conway, A. R., Jarrold, C. E., Kane, M. J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J. N. (2007).Variation
in working memory. Oxford University Press.
Craik, F. I., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory
research. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 11(6), 671-684.
Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2007). Testing and refining the direct and inferential
mediation model of reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 311.
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980) Individual differences in working memory
and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, pp 450-466. doi: 10.1016/S0022-5371(80)9032-6.
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1983). Individual differences in integrating
information between and within sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(4), 561.
Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language
comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(4),
422-433.
Daneman, M., & Hannon, B. (2007). What do working memory span tasks like reading
span really measure. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory, 21-42.
Deavers, R. P., & Brown, G. D. (1997). Analogy‐based strategies for non‐word
reading in dyslexia: effects of task. Dyslexia, 3(3), 135-156.
de Jonge, P., & de Jong, P. F. (1996). Working memory, intelligence and reading ability in
children. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(6), 1007-1020.
Dennis, M., & Barnes, M. A. (2001). Comparison of literal, inferential, and
intentional text comprehension in children with mild or severe closed-head injury. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 16(5), 456-468.
Duke, N. K., & Martineau, J. A. (2007). Learning to read and write genre‐specific text:
Roles of authentic experience and explicit teaching. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(1), 8-45.
Duke, N. K., Pearson, P. D., Stranchan, S. L., & Billman, A. K. (2011). Essential
elements of fostering and teaching reading comprehension. What research has to say about reading instruction, 4, 286-314.
Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. (1999). Working memory,
short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Journal of experimental psychology: General, 128(3), 309.
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current directions
in psychological science, 11(1), 19-23.
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological
review, 102(2), 211.
Foote, R. (2011). Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English–Spanish
bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32(01), 187-220.
Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2004). The reading span test and its predictive power
for reading comprehension ability. Journal of memory and language, 51(1),
136-158.
Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference
control functions: a latent-variable analysis. Journal of experimental psychology: General, 133(1), 101.
Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2005). Comparison of four scoring methods for the
reading span test. Behavior Research Methods, 37(4), 581-590.
Gathercole, S. E., &Alloway, T. P. (2007). Understanding working memory: A classroom
guide. Lontoo: Harcourt Assessment.
Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (2014).Working memory and language processing.
Psychology Press.
Gough, P. B., Hoover, W.A., & Peterson, G.L. (1996). Some observations on a simple
view of reading. In C. Cornoldi & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading comprehension difficulties: Process and intervention (pp. 1-13). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gray, J. R., Braver, T. S., & Raichle, M. E. (2002). Integration of emotion and cognition
in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(6), 4115-4120.
Hannon, B. (2012). Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower‐Level Word
, Higher‐Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension
Performance in Proficient Adult Readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(2),
125-152.
Hannon, B., &Daneman, M. (2009). Age-related changes in reading comprehension:
an individual-differences perspective. Experimental aging research, 35(4), 432-456.
Hannon, B., & Frias, S. (2012). A new measure for assessing the contributions of higher
level processes to language comprehension performance in preschoolers. Journal of educational psychology, 104(4), 897.
Harrington, M. & Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading
skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25–38.
Hdstijn, J. H., & Bossers, B. (1992). Individual differences in L2 proficiency as a function
of L1 proficiency. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4(4), 341-353.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom
anxiety. The modern language journal, 70(2), 125-132.
Hummel, K. M. (2009). Aptitude, phonological memory, and second language proficiency
in nonnovice adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(02), 225-249.
Jerman, O., Reynolds, C., & Swanson, H. L. (2012). Does Growth in Working
Memory Span or Executive Processes Predict Growth in Reading and Math in Children With Reading Disabilities? .Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(3), 144-157.
Juffs, A. (2004). Representation, processing and working memory in a second
language. Transactions of the Philological Society, 102(2), 199-225.
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension:
Individual differences in working memory. Psychological review, 99, 122-149.
Kane, M. J., Bleckley, M. K., Conway, A. R., & Engle, R. W. (2001). A
controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(2), 169.
Kane, M. J., Hambrick, D. Z., & Conway, A. R. (2005). Working memory capacity and
fluid intelligence are strongly related constructs: comment on Ackerman, Beier, and Boyle (2005).
Kane, M. J., Conway, A. R., Hambrick, D. Z., & Engle, R. W. (2007). Variation in
working memory capacity as variation in executive attention and control. Variation in working memory, 21-48.
King, A. (2007). Beyond literal comprehension: A strategy to promote deep understanding
of text. Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies, 267-290.
Kintsch, W. (1998).Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge university
press.
Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory.Psychological
review, 102(2), 211.
Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach.
Cambridge University Press.
Kramer, A. F., Humphrey, D. G., Larish, J. F., & Logan, G. D. (1994). Aging and
inhibition: beyond a unitary view of inhibitory processing in attention. Psychology and aging, 9(4), 491.
LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information
processing in reading. Cognitive psychology, 6(2), 293-323.
Leeser, M. J. (2007). Learner‐based factors in L2 reading comprehension and
processing grammatical form: Topic familiarity and working memory. Language
Learning, 57(2), 229-270.
Linck, J. A., Hoshino, N., & Kroll, J. F. (2008). Cross-language lexical processes and
inhibitory control. The mental lexicon, 3(3), 349.
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and
second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 21(4), 861-883.
Logie, R. H., Osaka, N. &D’Esposito, M. (2007) Working memory capacity, control,
components and theory: An editorial overview. In N. Osaka, R. H. Logie& M.
D’Esposito (Eds.), The gocnitive neurosicience of working memory (pp. xiii-xvii). NY: Oxford.
McVay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2012). Why does working memory capacity predict
variation in reading comprehension? On the influence of mind wandering and executive attention. Journal of experimental psychology: general, 141(2), 302.
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language
proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. Foreign language learning:
Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention, 339-364.
Miyake, A., & Shah, P. (1999). Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active
maintenance and executive control. Cambridge University Press.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager,
T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive psychology, 41(1), 49-100.
Nagy, W. E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension.
National Council of Teachers of English, 1111 Kenyon Rd., Urbana, IL 61801
Nassaji, H. (2002). Schema Theory and Knowledge‐Based Processes in Second
Language Reading Comprehension: A Need for Alternative Perspectives. Language Learning, 52(2), 439-481.
Osaka, M., & Osaka, N. (1992). Language-independent working memory as measured
by Japanese and English reading span tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society.
Osaka, M., Osaka, N., &Groner, R. (1993). Language-independent working memory:
Evidence from German and French reading span tests. Bulletin of the
Psychonomic Society.
Paul, P., Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. E. (2003). Processes and components of
reading. Handbook of deaf studies, language, and education, 97-109.
Pickering, S. J. (Ed.). (2006). Working Memory and Education [TexteImprimé].
Academic Pr.
Pulido, D. (2003). Modeling the role of second language proficiency and topic
familiarity in second language incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Language learning, 53(2), 233-284.
Pulido, D. (2009). How involved are American L2 learners of Spanish in lexical input
processing tasks during reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31(1),
31-58.
Rai, M. K., Loschky, L. C., Harris, R., Peck, N. R., & Cook, L. G. (2011). Effects of
stress and working memory capacity on foreign language readers’ inferential
processing during comprehension. Language Learning, 61 (1), pp. 187-218.
Rapala, M. M., & Brady, S. (1990). Reading ability and short-term memory: The role
of phonological processing. Reading and Writing, 2(1), 1-25.
Rosen, V. M., & Engle, R. W. (1998). Working memory capacity and suppression. Journal
of memory and language, 39(3), 418-436.
Rott, S. (1999). The Effect of Exposure Frequencies on Intermediate Language Learners’
Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention throughout Reading. Studies in second language acquisition, 21(04), 589-619.
Sawyer, M., & Harrington, M. (1992) L2 Working Memory Capacity and L2 Reading
Skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14,pp 25-38.
doi:10.1017/S0272263100010457.
Scales, A.M., &Shen, L.-B.(2004, May/June). An investigation of questions in
McGuffey’s second readers. Reading Online, 7(6). Available: http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=scales/index.html
Service, E., & Craik, F. I. M. (1993). Differences between young and older adults in
learning a foreign vocabulary. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 59-74.
Service, E., Simola, M., Metsänheimo, O., & Maury, S. (2002). Bilingual working
memory span is affected by language skill. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14(3), 383-408.
Shallice, T., & Warrington, E. K. (1970). Independent functioning of verbal memory
stores: A neuropsychological study. The Quarterly journal of experimental
psychology, 22(2), 261-273.
Schiefele, U. (1990). The influence of topic interest, prior knowledge, and cognitive
capabilities on text comprehension. In Learning environments (pp. 323-338). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of
individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading research quarterly, 360-407.
Sweller, J. (1994).Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design.
Learning and instruction, 4(4), 295-312.
Taillefer, G. F. (1996). L2 Reading Ability: Further Insight into the Short‐circuit
Hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 80(4), 461-477.
Tierney, R. J. (1990). Redefining Reading Comprehension. Educational Leadership,
47(6), 37-42.

Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task
dependent?. Journal of memory and language, 28(2), 127-154.
Unsworth, N., Brewer, G. A., & Spillers, G. J. (2009). There’s more to the working
memory capacity—fluid intelligence relationship than just secondary memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(5), 931-937.
Unsworth, N., & Engle, R. W. (2007). The nature of individual differences in working
memory capacity: active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory. Psychological review, 114(1), 104.
van den Noort, M. W., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Foreign language proficiency
and working memory capacity. European Psychologist, 11(4), 289-296.
Walker, L., Munro, J., & Richards, F. W. (1998). Teaching Inferential Reading
Strategies through Pictures. Volta Review, 100(2), 105-20.
Walter, C. (2004). Transfer of reading comprehension skills to L2 is linked to mental
representations of text and to L2 working memory. Applied Linguistics, 25(3),
315-339.
Waters, G. S., & Caplan, D. (1996). The capacity theory of sentence comprehension:
Critique of Just and Carpenter (1992).
Weissheimer, J., & Mota, M. B. (2009). Individual differences in working memory
capacity and the development of L2 speech production. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 17(2).
Wolf, M., &Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific
studies of reading, 5(3), 211-239.
Zhou, Y. C. (2002). The relationship between Chinese comprehension and different types
of working memory. Journal of National Hualien Teachers College, (14), 123-142.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
英語教學碩士在職專班
100951001
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100951001
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
100101.pdf1601KbAdobe PDF395View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing