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The Basic Structure of Rites of Inspecting and Summoning During the Song Dynasty
Daoist ritual;the Rites of Inspecting and Summoning;evil ghosts
|Issue Date:||2018-03-16 17:03:17 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||考召法是道教咒術儀禮的一種，可以定義為「捉捕祟鬼，審訊它」的咒術。筆者曾分析過天心法中之考召法的基本過程。劉仲宇教授和Edward L. Davis教授在他們的著書中也曾分析了考召法的過程。本文在這些研究成果上，選擇出從唐末到宋元時代成立的四種考召法，比較考察各個考召法的過程。《金鎖流珠引》被認為是宋代以前成立的，所以可以認為其相關內容反映出天心法、雷法等代表性道教咒術成立以前的考召法。本文所使用的其它探討資料，在天心法的部分，選擇的是《上清天心正法》和《太上助國救民總真秘要》中的相關部分。關於雷法，選擇《道法會元》卷二二二〈正一吽神靈官火犀大仙考召秘法〉。另外，由於天蓬法主張其有與天心法、雷法不一樣的特色，本文則選擇《道法會元》卷一五六到卷一六八的〈上清天蓬伏魔大法〉作為代表。這些咒術的基本過程是一樣的，但是在「下近罩」、「下遠罩」的部分，或是讓祟鬼憑依童子的部分，以及行法中道士所踏的步罡和收容祟鬼的獄，各個考召法都有各自的特色。|
The Rites of Inspecting and Summoning are a kind of Daoist ritual. The author of this paper analyzes the basic construction of this ritual as it is practiced in the Rites of Celestial Heart. Building upon the studies of these methods by Liu Zhong-yu and Edward L. Davis, this study analyzes the construction of these rites by selecting four kinds of rituals compiled from the end of Tang Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty. It compares the basic construction of these four rites and deepens our understanding of how they were practiced and developed. It begins with an examination of the Guide to the Golden Lock and the Moving Pearls, a text likely compiled before Song Dynasty, in an effort to present earlier Rites of Inspecting and Summoning before the Rites of the Celestial Heart and the Rites of the Thunder were formed. In an effort to study the development of these practices during the Rites of the Celestial Heart, the author selects the rituals recorded in the Correct Rites of the Celestial Heart in Shangqing Tradition and Secret Essentials of the Most High Principal Zhenren Assisting the Country and Saving the People. The author then analyzes the Rites of the Thunder, with special attention paid to the Rites of General Ma in Daofahuiyuan (chapter 222). This paper also studies the rites of General Tianpeng in Daofahuiyuan (chapters 156-168) to address further developments of the ritual. The basic structure of these four rites are similar but they differ on minor points and provide separate ritual strategies for practices such as on arranging narrow or broad covers, on making an evil ghost possess a young boy, and the prison in which take in evil ghost.
|Relation:||華人宗教研究, 3, 1-26|
|Appears in Collections:||[Studies in Chinese Religions ] Journal Articles|
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