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Title: The Complex Chess Game of Compound Languages: Qun/Qunxue and Shehui/Shehuixue in Late Qing China
Authors: 韓承樺
Han, Cheng-hua
Keywords: ;群學;社會;社會學;新名詞;複合式語言
qun;qunxue;shehui;shehuixue;neologisms;compound language
Date: 2017-12
Issue Date: 2018-03-30 16:39:18 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文討論於流衍晚清時際的兩組詞彙、概念,「群」/「群學」和「社會」/「社會學」。「群」與「群學」這組詞彙、概念,原是為回應晚清政治問題而形成,後又成為時人翻譯、引介來自西方,轉道日本的society、sociology,從而與「社會」/「社會學」交織為一複雜的語言、概念、思想論述的網絡。本文認為,當我們要脈絡化地思考新名詞、概念於晚清時論、思想界的問題時,或許得將之想像成一種複合體。晚清語境中的新語詞或概念,其意義內涵於各類論述裡的展演,皆是在與其他可能是舊的、意義相近,甚至相反的詞彙、概念交織互動中體現。這樣的「複合式語言」,提供知識分子一套足以描寫世界,及試圖想像扭轉、重整世界的思想工具。「複合式語言」之形成和運作,更反映了晚清政治、思想文化脈絡中,幾個相互關聯的議題:進化論、歷史書寫、群體組成與內部秩序規劃。此一問題群組就如同一盤棋局,「群」/「群學」、「社會」/「社會學」就為棋盤中的兩方對手;時論者選用不同的詞彙,在語言、概念上或有區隔,亦有匯通,展示了相異的觀察社會、政治變遷之角度,卻又是立基於高度思想關聯性的問題邏輯上。而棋局中的問題群組,就適度具現了傳統中國於現代轉型過程中遇到的困難。
This paper analyzes two sets of concepts - qun/qunxue and shehui/shehuixue - against the historical background of late Qing China, showing how their interweaving produced an intricate network of languages, concepts, and discourses. Additionally, the formation of a compound language by these four terms demonstrates how the practices of new concepts in the late Qing were actualized through the complex relations between the new and the traditional, the parallel, as well as those diametrically opposed terms. Initially, qun and qunxue emerged as concepts responding to a specific political context in nineteenth century Qing China. Subsequently, both terms were also employed to translate the new Western concepts of "society" and "sociology" respectively. At roughly the same time, however, two other neologisms - shehui and shehuixue - made their way from Japan into China, thus directly competing with the indigenous set of terms. Resembling at times an intricate chess games with multiple tactical constellations, the relationship between qun/qunxue and shehui/shehuixue shows how concepts were appropriated by late Qing intellectuals to not only describe their world, but also transform it. This resulted in the construction and practice of a compound language related directly to the emerging discourse of evolution, as well as changing understandings of historiography and visions of a new society. Pursuing specific goals and agendas, intellectuals would strategically choose between traditional and newly invented terms, thereby demonstrating different, at times mutually opposed attitudes concerning Qing China's society and polity. At the same time, these competing attitudes remained embedded in two closely related intellectual traditions, thus further reflecting the complex nature of the late Qing transformation.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 13, 335+337-382
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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