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Title: 戰國時代的氣概念-以出土文獻為中心
A Study on a Thought on Qi 氣 in the Warring States Period: Focusing on Excavated Materials
Authors: 竹田健二
Contributors: 東亞觀念史集刊
Keywords: ;出土文獻;道家;儒家;戰國時代
Date: 2016-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-20 15:52:35 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在中國思想史上,學界向來認為氣概念作為特別重要的概念而登場主要是在漢代以後。雖然如此,這並不代表氣在漢代以前從未被論述過。在記錄先秦思想的文獻中,已經頻繁地討論到氣。討論氣的片段分散出現在先秦思想的現存文獻中,因此以往的研究似乎仍未解明先秦時代的氣概念為何,以及有關氣的思考在戰國時代是否已經形成體系等等問題。然而,如果一併考慮向來的研究所使用的現存文獻,以及近年的戰國時代出土文獻論述的氣思考,則勢必大舉糾正過去研究的見解。本文藉由新出土文獻與現存文獻的氣的例子,釐清戰國中期以前的道家與儒家對於氣的多樣思考,並且認為這些多樣的有關氣的思考,即是道家與儒家順應其所關心,接受且展開在他們以前先行存在的、世界的一切現象是由氣所構成的氣思想之結果。
The purpose of this study is to get a new view about how the Hundred Schools of Thought(諸子百家)developed their thought on Qi 氣in the Pre-Qin period. In my analysis I rely considerably on excavated materials in the Warring States period: Chu Bamboo Slips from Guo Dian 郭店; Chu Bamboo Slips of the Warring States Period Collected in Shanghai Museum; Bamboo Slips of the Warring States Period Collected in Tsing Hua University. In conclusion, Daoism(道家)and Confucian School(儒家), certainly had various thoughts on Qi before the middle Warring States period: In Daoism, Qi is a component of everything; In Confucian School, mostly Qi is a component that makes up human body or mind. The important point to note is that examples using the term of Ying Yang zhi Qi 陰陽之氣 and Tian Di zhi Qi 天地之氣can be seen in Rong Cheng Shi 容成氏 of Chu Bamboo Slips of the Warring States Period Collected in Shanghai Museum. I would suggest that the thought on Qi that Qi is a component of everything already existed before Warring States period, Daoism and Confucian School before the middle Warring States period adopted the thought on Qi of precede philosopher, and developed it.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 11, 23+25-59
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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