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Title: 作為統治手段之「恥」:以《逸周書》三訓為中心
The Idea of Shame as a Method for Statecraft in "The Three Admonitions" Chapter of The Lost Book of Zhou Dynasty
Authors: 中村未來
Contributors: 東亞觀念史集刊
Keywords: ;《逸周書》三訓;清華簡〈命訓〉;民眾統治
Date: 2016-12
Issue Date: 2019-11-20 15:52:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在東亞文化圈當中,「恥」觀具有廣泛的共同認識基礎,藉由對「恥」觀的討論,我們將能更深入理解自身的倫理觀和行為規範。本稿第一章先簡介日、中對於「恥」觀的研究成果,第二章進一步確認中國春秋戰國時期的「恥」觀用例;第三、四章則以因成書過程曖昧而向來較少受到研究的《逸周書》三訓(〈度訓〉、〈命訓〉、〈常訓〉)為對象,嘗試結合出土文獻來討論其「恥」觀。結果發現,對於「恥」,《論語》或《孟子》將其視為內省或促進自我修養的要素;但相對的,《管子》則將「恥」與「禮」、「義」並列,認為是治國的關鍵。成書於戰國後期的《荀子》,也將「廉恥」一詞與禮義、辭讓並列陳述。由於一般認為在《荀子》一書中,有著齊國稷下學者所纂《管子》的影響,在「恥」的部分,或許也有在過去儒家的內省要素中,添加《管子》所述「廉恥」的內容並加以活用的可能性。另一方面也清楚可見,在《逸周書》三訓中,恥藉由習慣化而作為抑惡揚善的指針,是與天道之「命」相對的存在;而從《逸周書》三訓闡述天人相關思想,認為恥與禍、福、賞、罰同為治民之要並予以重視的說法來看,可說與《管子》有高度的相似性。
The idea of shame (chi 恥) is widely used in East Asian countries. This study explores its own significant meanings as a sense of ethic and a code of conduct primarily by means of searching for original meanings of the term. The analysis in this article consists of two parts. Firstly, it discusses the various usages of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period texts. Secondly, I focus on the ideas appearing in "The Three Admonitions (Sanxun 三訓) chapter in The Lost Book of Zhou Dynasty (Yizhoushu《逸周書》). Earlier research on the concept of chi has not paid sufficient attention to its important role in this text. Taking this into account, this article presents the following two points. Firstly, the concept of chi in The Analects and The Mencius represents an image of a prompt person who is engaged in introspection and self-cultivation. In the case of The Book of Guanzi(《管子》), however, a concept similar to the ideas of propriety (li 禮) and righteousness (yi 義) appears, all of which are regarded as means of exerting state control. Secondly, the chapter "Three Admonitions" in The Lost Book of Zhou Dynasty presents an argument: If the idea of shame pervades throughout the country like a custom to be regulated by the mandate of Heaven (ming 命), it functions as a precept to suppress evil and promote virtue. The thoughts presented in "The Three Admonitions" include an idea of correlation between Heaven and human spheres, in which the concept of shame also shows similar ethical and political functions as concepts of luck and misfortune (福禍), as well as rewards and punishments (shangfa 賞罰). In this sense, the concept of shame is in a sense a very pivotal method for controlling people, and this can be observed in The Book of Guanzi.
Relation: 東亞觀念史集刊, 11, 311-337
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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