Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137157

Title: 殖民遺緒與拉丁美洲與加勒比國家的民主發展 (1982-2018)
Colonial Legacies and Democratic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (1982-2018)
Authors: 谷愷德
Berganza, Kevin Guillermo
Contributors: 蘇彥斌
Su, Yen-Pin
Kevin Guillermo Berganza
Keywords: 殖民主義
civil society
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 18:14:44 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 許多既有的研究發現經濟發展對於不同的民主程度有相當的解釋力。然而,研究殖民遺緒如何影響新興民主國家的民主化之相關研究成果並不多。為了補充既有文獻的不足,本論文試圖以拉丁美洲與加勒比海國家為例,探討殖民遺緒與民主發展之間的關係。本研究主張,相較於其他的歐洲殖民強權,英國的自由主義殖民統治為殖民地的公民社會提供了較開放的環境,也因此有助提升這些國家在獨立後的民主發展。本論文利用拉丁美洲與加勒比海33個國家、橫跨1982年到2018年的總體資料進行實證研究,分析結果顯示,相較於曾被其他歐洲強權殖民的國家,曾被英國殖民的國家在獨立後確實有較高的民主程度。其次,本研究亦針對貝里斯與瓜地馬拉進行比較案例研究,其研究結果也支持了本文的假設。貝里斯的案例顯示由於英國的自由主義殖民遺緒為社會抗議動員提供了開放的環境,使貝里斯能有較強健的民主代表性。相對而言,瓜地馬拉的案例顯示西班牙的重商主義殖民遺緒則阻礙了公民社會的發展,因而對其民主發展造成負面影響。總結而言,本論文的實證研究顯示,殖民遺緒對於吾人理解後殖民國家的民主發展有相當的重要性。
Previous research shows that economic development matters for explaining the variation in levels of democracy. Yet, few studies focus on the effects of colonial legacies on democratization in new democracies. This thesis aims to fill the gap in the literature by examining the relationship between colonial legacies and democratic development in Latin America and the Caribbean. I argue that, compared to other European colonizers, British forms of liberal colonial rule helped create a more open environment for civil society, and thus facilitates democratic development in these post-colonial countries. Using data in thirty-three countries in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1982 through 2018, my empirical analysis demonstrates that ex-British colonies tend to have higher levels of democracy than countries that were colonized by other European countries. Additionally, my comparative case studies of Belize and Guatemala also provide support for my hypothesis. The case of Belize suggests that the British liberal colonial legacies provide a more open environment for social mobilizations, which catalyzed stronger democratic representation. In contrast, the case of Guatemala suggests that Spanish mercantilist colonial legacies impede the growth of civil society, and thus produce a lower level of democracy. Overall, this thesis provides solid evidence to show the importance of colonial legacies in understanding democratic development in post-colonial countries.
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