Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/38336

Title: MSN狀態列內容自我揭露的性別差異
Gender differences in self-disclosure in the away message of MSN
Authors: 蕭萱茵
Deike Lautenschlaeger
Contributors: 汪琪
Deike Lautenschlaeger
Keywords: 即時訊息
Instant Messenger (IM)
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)
Date: 2008
Issue Date: 2010-04-09 14:42:32 (UTC+8)
Abstract: Although a substantial body of research exists on gender differences in Computer Mediated Communication, relatively little empirical attention has been directed toward the special case of CMC - Instant Messenger (IM) and the area of self-disclosure. This study analyzes gender differences and relationships in self-disclosure in the away message of MSN of 329 male and female Taiwanese university students.

Applying the five subscales of self-disclosure by Wheeless and Grotz (Wheeless, 1978; Wheeless & Grotz, 1976) and the six topic areas of self-disclosure by Jourard and Lasakow (1958) revealed the following results: Findings show that males and females often do not show the gender differences anymore, which were previously found in face-to-face communication on certain aspects of self-disclosure e.g. frequency, depth, breadth, honesty or accuracy and valence of self-disclosure. However, findings pointing out the different motives and the use of self-disclosure on IM are similar to face-to-face communication, such as females prefer discussing their “personality” while male MSN users prefer “work or studies” especially the more buddies they have.

Also males disclose with awareness and intention suggesting the make use of selective self-presentation (Walther, 1996) for rather males than females. Female MSN users write more impulsively in their away message, however they are found to be more selective than males in to whom they chose to disclose or not by blocking buddies.
The number of buddies on the buddy list seems to have hardly any effect on males’ and females’ self-disclosure. The gender of buddies on the buddy list as a moderating factor showed that males feel more comfortable (honest and less understated) when disclosing to females.

Extra findings include that for both gender self-disclosures on IM is not less honest and not exaggerated, rather understated. Previous findings in face-to-face communication on preferred topics of self-disclosure of both genders of Asian background were confirmed on IM. On IM, self-disclosure by males and females seem to be free of the importance of the degree of social distance within Chinese society as hardly any primary groups and secondary groups but almost only mixed groups of buddies on buddy lists were found.
Reference: 【1】 莊淳惠(2004)。虛擬人際互動的非語言溝通策略:以純文字聊天室為例Nonverbal Communication Strategies of Virtual Personal Interaction-An Example of the Text-based Chat Room。國立交通大學傳播研究所碩士論文。
【2】 楊淑婷(2005)。生活型態與即時通訊之使用Life Style and the Use of Instant Messenger。世新大學傳播研究所碩士論文。
【3】 溫典寰 (2005)。即時通訊不同市場需求的功能差異與滿意度—以MSN Messenger與Yahoo奇摩Messenger為例。《網路社會學通訊期刊》45。http://www.nhu.edu.tw/~society/e-j/45/45-03.htm (retrieved April 4th, 2007).
【4】 王政彥(1994) 。溝通恐懼- 面對人際溝通的焦慮與害怕Fear of Communication。台北:遠流出版社。
【5】 薛怡青 I-Ching Hsueh (2001). Taiwan BBS Users' Self-disclosure, Inclination of Self Presentation in Plan File, and Perception of the Nickname. 國立交通大學。
【6】 Ackerman, M. (2000). The Intellectual Challenge of CSCW: The Gap between Social Requirements and Technical Feasibility. Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 15 no. 2/3, 179-203.
【7】 Allen, J. G., & Haccoun, D. M. (1976). Sex difference s in emotionality: A multidimensional approach. Human Relations, 29, 711± 722.
【8】 Altman, I., & Taylor, D. A. (1973). Social penetration: the development of interpersonal relationship. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
【9】 Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1987). Communication in interpersonal relationships: Social Penetration Theory. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: New directions in communication research (pp. 257-277). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
【10】 Anderson, K. J., & Leaper, C. (1998). Emotion talk between same and cross-gender friends: Form and function. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 17, 419–448.
【11】 Anderson, P. A., & Guerrero, L. K. (Eds.) (1998). Handbook of Communication and Emotion: Research, Theory, Applications, and Contexts. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.
【101】 Fisher, D. V. (1984). A conceptual analysis of self-disclosure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 14, (3), 277-296.
【102】 Fisher, R. J. (1983). Third Party consultation as a method of intergroup conflict resolution: A review of studies. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol 17, 301-334.
【103】 Fono, D., & Raynes-Goldie, K. (2006). Hyperfriendship and Beyond: Friends and Social Norms on LiveJournal. In M. Consalvo, & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), AoIR Internet Research Annual Volume 4. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
【104】 Fraser, B. (1994). No conversation without misrepresentation. In H. Parret (Ed.) Pretending to communicate (pp. 143-153). Berlin: De Gruyter.
【105】 Gallivan, M., & Srite, M. (2005). Information technology and culture: identifying fragmentary and holistic perspectives of culture. Information and Organization, Vol. 15, 295-338.
【106】 Gannon, M. J. (2001). Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 28 Nation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
【107】 Ge, Gao, & Ting-Toomey, S. (1998). Communicating Effectively with the Chinese. California: Sage Publications Inc.
【108】 Giddens, A. (1999). Runaway world: How globalization is reshaping our lives. London: Routledge.
【109】 Gilbert, S. J., & Whiteneck, G. G. (1976). Toward a multidimensional approach to the study of selfdisclosure. Human Communication Research 2: 347–355.
【110】 Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
【12】 Annicchiarico, L. K. (1973). Sex differences in self disclosure as related to sex and status of the interviewer. Dissertation Abstracts 34:5- B, 2296.
【111】 Granovetter, M. S. (1982). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. In P. V. Mardsen and N. Lin (Eds.), Social Structure and Network Analysis (pp. 105-130). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
【112】 Greene, J. O., & Burleson, B. R. (2003). Handbook of communication and social interaction skills. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
【113】 Greene, K., Derlega,V. L., & Mathews, A. (2006). Self-disclosure in personal relationships. In A.Vangelisti, & D. Perlman (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 1268-1328). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
【114】 Grinter, R., & Palen, L. (2002) Instant messaging in teen life. Paper presented at CSCW'02, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 16-20 November, 21-30.
【115】 Griffin, M. (November 2nd, 2006). Away messages: a look into the female psyche. The Fairfield Mirror: http://media.www.fairfieldmirror.com/media/storage/paper148/news/2006/11/02/Commentary/Away-messages.A.Look.Into.The.Female.Psyche-2415171.shtml (retrieved October, 2008).
【116】 Gudykunst, W. B. (1985). The influence of cultural similarity, type of relationship, and self-monitoring on uncertainty reduction progress. Communication Monographs, 52, 203-217.
【117】 Gudykunst, W. B. (1995). Anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory: Current status. In R. L. Wiseman (Eds.), Intercultural Communication Theory (pp. 8-58). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
【118】 Gudykunst, W. B. (1996). Uncertainty and anxiety. In Y. Y. Kim & W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication (pp. 123-156). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
【119】 Gudykunst, W. B., & Hammer, M. R. (1987). The Influence of Ethnicity, Gender, and Dyadic Compositions on Uncertainty Reducation in Initial Interactions. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, 191-214.
【120】 Gudykunst, W. B., & Nishida, T. (1983). Social penetration in Japanese and American close friendships. Paper presented at the annual convention of the International Communication Association, Dallas, TX.
【13】 Anolli, L. (2002). MaCHT—miscommunication as chance theory: toward a unitary theory of communication and miscommunication. In L. Anolli, R.Ciceri, & G. Riva, (Eds.), Say not to say: new perspectives on miscommunication (pp. 3–42). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
【121】 Gudykunst, W. B., & Nishida, T. (1984). Individual and Cultural Influences on Uncertainty Reduction. Communication Monographs, 51(1), 23.
【122】 Gudykunst, W. B., Ting-Toomey, S., & Nishida, T. (Eds.). (1996). Communication in personal relationships across cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
【123】 Gudykunst, W. B., Yang, S., & Nishida, T. (1985). A cross-cultural test of uncertainty reduction theory: Comparisons of acquaintances, friends, and dating relationships in Japan, Korea, and United States. Human Communication Research. 11(3), 407-454.
【124】 Haas, A. (1979). Male and female spoken language differences: Stereotypes and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 616–626.
【125】 Hall, J. A. (1984). Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
【126】 Hancock, J. T., & Dunham, P. J. (2001). Impression formation in computer-mediated communication revisited: An analysis of the breadth and intensity of impressions. Communication Research, 28, 325-347.
【127】 Heales, J., & Cockcroft, S. K. S. (2005). National culture, trust and internet privacy concerns. Proceedings of the 16th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS 2005): Socialising IT: Thinking About the People.
【128】 Herring, S. C. (1992). Gender and participation in computer-mediated linguistic discourse. Washington, D.C.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Document no. ED345552.
【129】 Herring, S. C. (1993). Gender and democracy in computer- mediated communication. Electronic Journal of Communication, 3: 1–17.
【130】 Herring, S. C. (1994). Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: bringing familiar baggage to the new frontier. www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/herring.txt (retrieved June 10th, 2007).
【14】 Arkin, R.M. (1986). Self-presentation strategies and sequelae. In Zelen, S. (Ed.), Self Representation: The Second Attributional-Personality Theory Conference, CSPP-LA,1986 (pp. 5-29). New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.
【131】 Herring, S. C. (1996a). Posting in a different voice: Gender and ethics in computer-mediated communication. In C. Ess (Ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Computer-mediated communication (pp. 115-145). Albany: SUNY Press.
【132】 Herring, S. C. (1996b). Two variants of an electronic message schema. In S. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. 81-106). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
【133】 Herring, S. C. (1999). The rhetorical dynamics of gender harassment online. The Information Society 15(3), 151-167. Special issue on The Rhetorics of Gender in Computer-Mediated Communication, ed. by L.J. Gurak.
【134】 Herring, S. C. (2001). Computer-mediated discourse. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. Hamilton (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 612-634). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~herring/cmd.pdf (retrieved September, 2008).
【135】 Herring, S. C., Johnson, D., & DiBenedetto, T. (1992). Participation in electronic discourse in a 'feminist' field. In K. Hall, M. Bucholtz, & B. Moonwomon (Eds.), Locating Power: The Proceedings of the Second Berkeley Women and Language Conference (pp. 250-262). Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Reprinted (1998) in J. Coates (Ed.), Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
【136】 Hert, P. (1997). Social dynamics of an on-line scholarly debate. The Information Society 13, 329-360.
【137】 Hill, C. T. and Stull, D. E. (1987). Gender and self-disclosure: Strategies for exploring the issues. In V J. Derlega, & J. H. Berg (Eds.), Self-disclosure: Theory, research, and therapy (pp. 81-100). New York: Plenum Press.
【138】 Hu, Y., Smith, V., Westbrook, N., & Wood, J. F. (2004). Friendships through IM: Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue1/hu.html (retrieved September, 2008).
【139】 Huffaker, D. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2005). Gender, identity, and language use in teenage blogs. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(2). http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue2/huffaker.html (retrieved May 19, 2007).
【140】 Hyde, J. S. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(6), 581–592.
【15】 Argyle, M. (1988). Bodily communication (2nd edition). London: Methuen.
【141】 Hyink, P. W. (1975). The influence of client ego strength, client sex, and therapist sex on the frequency, depth, and focus of client self-disclosure (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International, 35, 4652B.
【142】 Ingram, R. E., Cruet, D., Johnson, B. R., & Wisnicki, K. S. (1988). Self-focused attention, gender, gender role, and vulnerability to negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 967-978.
【143】 Inman, D. J. (1978). Self-disclosure and interviewer reciprocity (Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 3398B.
【144】 Ip, A. (2003). The Impact of Emoticons on Affect Interpretation in Instant Messaging. Carnegie Mellon University, http://amysmile.com/pastprj/emoticon_paper.pdf (retrieved May, 2009).
【145】 Jacobs, G. (2003). Breaking Down Virtual Walls: Understanding the Real Space / Cyberspace Connections of Language and Literacy in Adolescents’ Use of Instant Messaging. Paper presented at the 2003 Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.
【146】 Jaffe, J. M., Lee, Y., Huang, L., & Oshagan, H. (1995). Gender, Pseudonyms, and CMC: Masking Identities and Baring Souls. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (ICA) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; May 1995. http://research.haifa.ac.il/~jmjaffe/genderpseudocmc/ (retrieved August, 2008).
【147】 Joinson, A. N. (1999). Social desirability, anonymity and Internet-based questionnaires. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 31(3), 433–438.
【148】 Joinson, A. (2001a). Knowing me, knowing you: Reciprocal self-disclosure in Internet based surveys. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 4, 587-573.
【149】 Joinson, A. N. (2001b) Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role of self-awareness and visual anonymity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 177-192.
【150】 Joinson, A. N. (2003) Understanding the Psychology of Internet Behaviour: Virtual Worlds, Real Lives. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
【16】 Azechi, S. (2005). Information humidity model: explanation of dual modes of community for social intelligence design. AI & Society, 19: 110–122.
【151】 Jones, S., & Madden, M. (2002). The Internet Goes to College: How Students Are Living in the Future with Today’s Technology. Pew Internet and American Life Project, September 15, 2002, http://www.pewinternet.org/reports/toc.asp?Report=71. (retrieved August, 2008).
【152】 Jourard, S. M. (196l). Age trends in self-disclosure. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 7, 191-197.
【153】 Jourard, S. (1971). Self-disclosure. An experimental analysis of the transparent self. Canada: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
【154】 Jourard, S. M., & Lasakow, P. (1958). Some factors in self-disclosure. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 56, 91-98.
【155】 Jourard, S. M., & Richman, P. (1963). Factors in the self-disclosureinputs of college students. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 9, 141-148.
【156】 Kaplan, N., & Farrell, E. (1994). Cyberfeminism as New Theory. http://www.womeninternet_files/EssayCybFem.htm. (retrieved September, 2008).
【157】 Kasper-Fuehrer, E. C., & Ashkanasky, N. M. (2001). Communicating trustworthiness and building trust in interorganizational virtual organizations. Journal of Management, 27, 235-254.
【158】 Kayan, S., Fussell, S. R., & Setlock, L. D. (2006) Cultural differences in the use of instant messaging in Asia and North America. In CSCW '06: Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on Computer supported cooperative work, 525-528.
【159】 Kiesler, S. (1986). Thinking ahead: the hidden messages in computer networks. Harvard Business Review, 46–59.
【160】 Kiesler, S. (Ed.) (1997). The Culture of the Internet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
【17】 Balka, E. (1993). Women's access to on-line discussions about feminism. Electronic Journal of Communication 3(1). http://www.cios.org/www/ejc/v3n193.htm (retrieved October, 2008).
【161】 Kiesler, S., Siegel, J., & McGuire, T. W. (1984). Social Psychological Aspects of Computer-Mediated Communication. American Psychologist 39 (10), 1123-1134.
【162】 King, A. Y. (1991). Kuan-hsi and Network Building: A Sociological Interpretation. Daedalus, 120, 63-84.
【163】 Klopf, D., & Cambra, R. (1979) Communication apprehension among college students in America, Australia, Japan, and Korea. The Journal of Psychology, 102, 27-31.
【164】 Knuttila, M. (2005). Introducing Sociology: A Critical Approach. Oxford University Press.
【165】 Komarovsky, M. (1962). Blue-collar Marriage. New York: Vintage Books.
【166】 Koreman, J., & Wyatt, N. (1996). Group Dynamics in a e-mail Forum. In S. Hering (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication. Linguistic, social and Cross-cultural Perspectives (pp: 225-240). Amsterdam/Philadelphia, J. Benjamin’s BV.
【167】 Kramarae, C., & Taylor, H. J. (1993). Women and men on electronic networks: A conversation or a monologue? In H. J. Taylor, C. Kramarae, & M. Ebben (Eds.), Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship (pp. 52-61). Urbana, IL: Center for Advanced Study.
【168】 Kraut, R. E., & Johnson, R. E. (1979). Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 1539-53.
【169】 KrollOntrack (2006). Glossary of terms. http://www.krollontrack.com/legalresources/glossary.aspx (retrieved October 12, 2008).
【170】 Kwan, V. S. Y., & Singelis, T. M. (1998). The cultural construction of self and well-being. Symposium paper presented at the Stanford-IPSR culture conference, California.
【18】 Bander, R., & Betz, N. (1981). The relationship of sex and sex role to trait and situationally specific anxiety types. Journal of Research in Personality, 15, 312-322.
【171】 Larose, R., & Liu, X. (2005). Are you a different person online? The effects of online experience on personality. Paper presented at the International Communication Association Conference, New York, NY.
【172】 Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
【173】 Lea, M., & Spears, R. (1991). Computer-mediated communication, deindividualization and group decision-making. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34, 283-301.
【174】 Lea, M., & Spears, R. (1992). Paralanguage and social perception in computer-mediated communication. Journal of Organizational Computing, 2, 321-342.
【175】 Lea, M. and Spears, R. (1995). Love at first byte? Building personal relationships over computer networks. In J. T. Wood and S. Duck (Eds.), Understudied Relationships: Off the Beaten Track (pp. 197-233). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
【176】 Lea, M., Spears, R., & de Groot, D. (2001). Knowing me, knowing you: Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 526-537.
【177】 Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 34-47.
【178】 Lee, J., & Song, J. (2003). Network typology and standards war: when does a new technology survive in the network economy? Presented at the Wharton Technology miniconference. http://emertech.wharton.upenn.edu/WhartonMiniConfPapers/Lee_etal_403.pdf (retrieved September, 2008).
【179】 Lenhart, A., Madden, M., & Hitlin, P. (2005). Teens and Technology: Youth are Leading the Transition to a Fully Wired and Mobile Nation. Pew Internet and American Life Report.
【180】 Lenhart, A., Rainie, L., & Lewis, O. (2001). Teenage life online: The rise of the instant messaging generation and the Internet’s impact on friendships and family relationships. Pew Internet and American Life Report, http://www.pewinternet.org/reports/index.asp (retrieved September, 2008).
【19】 Bargh, J. A., & McKenna, K. Y. A. (2004). The Internet and social life. Annual Review Psychology, 55, 573-590.
【181】 Lenhart, A., & Shiu, E. (2004). How Americans Use Instant Messaging. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Instantmessage_Report.pdf (retrieved September, 2008).
【182】 Leary, M. R. (1996). Self-Presentation: Impression management and interpersonal behavior. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
【183】 Leung, L. (2001). College student motives for chatting on ICQ. New Media and Society, 3(4), 483-500.
【184】 Levinger, G., & Snoek, D. J. (1972). Attraction in relationship: A new look at interpersonal attraction. Morristown, NJ: General Learning.
【185】 Li, D., Chau, P. Y. K., & Lou, H. (2005). Understanding individual adoption of instant messaging: an empirical investigation. Journal of Association for Information Systems, Vol. 6 No. 4, 102-26.
【186】 Li, J., Lam, K., Fu, P. P. (2000). Family oriented collectivism and its effects on firm performance: A comparison between overseas Chinese and foreign firms in China. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8 (4), 364-379.
【187】 Lipsman, A. (2006). Press Release Europe Surpasses North America In Instant Messenger Users, comScore Study Reveals. http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=800 (retrieved September, 2008).
【188】 Liu, Y. (2002). What does research say about the nature of computer-mediated communication: Task-oriented, social-emotion-oriented, or both? Electronic Journal of Sociology, 6(1).
【189】 Ljungstrand, P., & Hard af Segerstad, Y. (2000). Awareness of Presence, Instant Messaging and WebWho. Proceedings of GROUP ’00, December 2000, 21-27.
【190】 Ma, R. (1996). Computer-mediated conversations as a new dimension of intercultural communication between East Asian and North American college students. In S. C. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social, and Cross- Cultural Perspectives (pp. 173-185). Amsterdam and New York: John Benjamins.
【20】 Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y. A., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the “true self” on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 33-48.
【191】 Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.
【192】 McCormick, N.B., & McCormick, J.W. (1992). Computer friends and foes: Content of undergraduates' electronic mail. Computers in Human Behavior 8, 379-405.
【193】 McCoy, S., Galletta, D.F., & King, W.R. (2007).Applying TAM across cultures: the need for caution. European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 16, 81-90.
【194】 McKenna K.Y.A., & Bargh J. (2000). Plan 9 from Cyberspace: The implications of the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review 4: 57-75.
【195】 McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A. S., & Gleason, M. E. J. (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What's the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58 (1), 9-31.
【196】 McLuhan, M. (1962). The Gutenberg galaxy: The making of typographic man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
【197】 Morgan, B. (1976). Intimacy of self-disclosure topics and sex differences in self-disclosure. Sex Roles, 2, 161-166.
【198】 Myers, D. G. (1993). Social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
【199】 Nardi, B., Wittaker, S., & Bradner, E. (2000). Interaction and Outeraction: Instant Messaging in Action. Proceedings of CSCW ’00, December 2000, 79-88.
【200】 Nastri, J., Peña, J., & Hancock, J. T. (2006). The construction of away messages: A speech act analysis. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(4). http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue4/nastri.html (retrieved June, 2008).
【21】 Barnes, S. (2001). Online Connections: Internet Interpersonal Relationships. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 83-157.
【201】 Nguyen, Lisa (2007).Instant Messaging Market Heating Up. The Radicati Group, Inc. http://www.radicati.com/uploaded_files/news/IM2007_PR.pdf retrieved July, 2008).
【202】 O'Sullivan, P. B. (2000). What you don't know won't hurt me: Impression management functions of communication channels in relationships. Human Communication Research, 26 (3), 403-431.
【203】 Olaniran, B. A. (2001). Computer-mediated communication and conflict management process: A closer look at Anticipation of future interaction. World Future, 57, 285-313.
【204】 Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3-72.
【205】 Parks, M. R., & Floyd, K. (1996). Making friends in cyberspace. Journal of Communication, 46, 80-97. http://jmc.huji.ac.il/vol1/issue4/parks.html (retrieved September, 2008).
【206】 Pedersen, D. M., & Higbee, K. L. (1968). An evaluation of the equivalence and construct validity of various measures of self-disclosure. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 28, 511-523.
【207】 Petronio, S., Martin, J., & Littlefield, R. (1984). Prerequisite conditions for self- disclosing: A gender Issue. Communication Monographs, 51, 268-273.
【208】 Pitkow, J. (1997). The WWW user population: Emerging trends. GVU Center, Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology.
【209】 Postmes, T., Spears, R., Sakhel, K. & Groot, D. (2001). Social influence in computer-mediated communication: The effects of anonymity on group behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, (10), 1243-1254.
【210】 Postmes, T., Spears, R. & Lea, M. (1998). Breaching or building social boundaries? SIDE-effects of computer-mediated communication. Communication Research. v25 i6, 689-715.
【22】 Barnes, S. B. (2003). Computer-mediated communication: Human-to-human communication across the internet. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
【211】 Porter, R.E., & Samovar, L.A. (1998). Cultural influence on emotional expressions: Implications for intercultural communication. In P. A. Andersen, L. K. Guerrero, et al (Eds.), Handbook of Communication and Emotion: Research, Theory, Applications, and Contexts (pp. 451-471). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
【212】 Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.
【213】 Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
【214】 Rivera, K., Cooke, N., & Bauhs, J. (1996). The Effects of Emotional Icons on Remote Communication. Interactive Poster, Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI 96), 1996.
【215】 Rodino, M. (1997). Breaking out of binaries: Reconceptualizing gender and its relationship to language in computer-mediated communication. Journal of Computer-mediated communication 3(3). http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue3/rodino.html (retrieved September, 2008).
【216】 Rosen, C. (2007). Virtual Friendship and the New Narcissism. The New Atlantis, a Journal of Technology and Society.
【217】 Rosenfeld, L. B., & Kendrick, W. L. (1984). Self-disclosure avoidance: why am I afraid to tell you who I am. Communication Monographs, 46, 63-74.
【218】 Rubin, Z. (1975). Disclosing oneself to a stranger: Reciprocity and its limits. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11 (3), 233-260.
【219】 Rubin, Z., & Shenker, S., (1978). Friendship, proximity, and self-disclosure. Journal of Personality 46, 1-22.
【220】 Rubin, Z., Hill, C. T., Peplau, L. A., & Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1980). Self-disclosure and dating couples: Sex roles and the ethic of openness. Journal of Marriage and the Family, May, 305-317.
【23】 Baron, N. S. (2000). Alphabet to E-mail: How Written English Evolved and Where It’s Heading. Routledge: London.
【221】 Rubin, D.L., Yang, H., and Porte, M. (2000). A comparison of self-reported self-disclosure among Chinese and North Americans. In S. Petronio (Ed.). Balancing the secrets of private disclosure, (pp 215-230). Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
【222】 Savicki, V. (1996). Gender Language Style and Group Composition in Internet Discussion Groups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 2, Number 3.
【223】 Schiano, D. J., Chen, C. P., Ginsberg, J., Gretarsdottir, U., Huddleston, M., & Isaacs, E. (2002). Teen use of messaging media. Human factors in computing systems: CHI 2002 extended abstracts. New York: ACM. http://hci.stanford.edu/cs377/nardi-schiano/CHI2002.Schiano.pdf. (retrieved December, 2007).
【224】 Selfe, C. A., & Meyer, P. R. (1991). Testing claims for on-line conferences. Written Communication, 8(2), 163-192.
【225】 Seung Ho Cho (2007). Effects of Motivations and Gender on Adolescents’ Self-Disclosure in Online Chatting. Cyber psychology and Behavior, Volume 10, Number 3.
【226】 Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The Social Psychology of Telecommunications. London: John Wiley and Sons.
【227】 Smith, P.M. (1985). Language, the Sexes and Society. Blackwell, Oxford.
【228】 Snell, W. E., Miller, R. S., & Belk, S. S. (1988). Development of the Emotional Self- Disclosure Scale. Sex Roles, 18, 467± 485.
【229】 Snell, W. E., Miller, R. S., Belk, S. S., Garcia-Falconi, R., & Hernandez-Sanchez, J. E. (1989). Men’s and women’s emotional disclosures: The impact of disclosure recipient, culture, and the masculine role . Sex Roles, 21, 467± 485.
【230】 Sobel, D. L. (2000) The Process that 'John Doe' is Due: Addressing the legal challenge to Internet anonymity. Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, 5.
【24】 Baron, N. S. (2002). Who Sets Email Style: Prescriptivism, Coping Strategies, and Democratizing Communication Access. The Information Society, 18: 403-413.
【231】 Spears, R., & Lea, M. (1994). Panacea or Panopticon? The Hidden Power in Computer-Mediated Communication. Communication Research, 21, 427-453.
【232】 Sproull, L., & Kiesler, S. (1986). Reducing social context cues: electronic mail in organizational communication. Management Science, 32 (11): 1492-1512.
【233】 Sproull L., & Kiesler, S. (1991). Connections: New ways of working in the networked organizations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
【234】 Squires, L., & Stacey, Z. (2002). I am not my buddy icon: Aol instant messenger and self-presentation. http://www.polyglotconspiracy.net/AIMSelfPresentation-SquiresStacey.pdf (retrieved April 6, 2007).
【235】 Stacks, D. W., & Stone, J. D. (1984). An examination of the effect of basic speech courses, self-concept, and self-disclosure on communication apprehension. Communication Education, 33, 317-331.
【236】 Stepp, L. (2004). Sessions: Away messages keep users in touch. The Washington Post, Fri., July, 9, 2004.
【237】 Stern, S. R. (2004). Expressions of identity online: Prominent features and gender differences in adolescent’ World Wide Web home pages. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 48, 218-243.
【238】 Stokes, J., Childs, L., & Fuehrer, A. (1981). Gender and sex roles as predictors of self-disclosure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 510-514.
【239】 Stone, A. R. (1991). Will the Real Body Please Stand up? Boundary Stories about Virtual Cultures. In M.Benedikt, Cyberspace: First Steps.
【240】 Strangelove, M. (1994). The Internet, Electric Gaia and the Rise of the Uncensored Self. Computer-mediated communication Magazine, Volume 1, Number 5, 11.
【25】 Baron, N. S. (2003). See you online: Gender issues in college student use of Instant Messaging. http://www.american.edu/tesol/Baron-SeeYouOnlineCorrected64.pdf (retrieved June 10th, 2007).
【241】 Straub, D., Karen, L., & Hill, C.E. (2001). Transfer of information technology to the Arab world: a test of cultural influence modeling. Journal of Global Information Management, Vol. 9 No. 4, 6-28.
【242】 Sussman. N. M., & Tyson. D. H. (2000). Sex and power: gender differences in computer-mediated interactions. Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 16, Issue 4, 381-394.
【243】 Sutton, L. (1994). Using Usenet: Gender, power, and silence in electronic discourse. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
【244】 Tanis, M., & Postmes T. (2007). Two faces of anonymity: Paradoxical effects of cues to identity in CMC. Computers in Human Behavior 23, 955–970.
【245】 Tannen, D. (1990).You just don’t understand: Women and men in conversation. New York: William Morrow.
【246】 Tardy, C., Hosman, L., & Bradac, J. (1981). Disclosing self to friends and family: A reexamination of initial questions. Communication Research 29: 263–268.
【247】 Thornton, C. (2004) Social Awareness, Presentation, and Connection: Instant Messaging as a Presence Platform. Thesis Project, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
【248】 Tidwell, L.C., & Walther, J.B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.
【249】 Tinberge, N. (1959). Comparative studies of the behaviours of gulls (Laridae); a progress report. Behaviour, 15: 1-70.
【250】 Ting-Toomey, S. (1991). Intimacy expression in three cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15 (1), 29-46.
【26】 Baron, N. S. (2005). Instant Messaging and the Future of Language. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 48, No. 7, 29-31.
【251】 Turkle S. (1995). Life on the screen: identity in the age of the internet. Simon and Schuster, New York.
【252】 Wallace, F. L., & Wallace, S. R. (2001). Electronic office hours: a component of distance learning. Computers and Education 37, 3-4, 195-209.
【253】 Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational perspective. Communication Research, 19 (1), 52-90.
【254】 Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23 (1), 3-44.
【255】 Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impression, and interpersonal evaluations: getting to know another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research 28: 317–348.
【256】 Walther, J. B., Anderson, J. F., & Park, D. D. (1994). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A meta-analysis of social and antisocial communication. Communication Research, 21 (4), 460 - 487.
【257】 Walther, J. B., & Burgoon, J. K. (1992). Relational communication in computer-mediated interaction. Human Communication Research, 19 (1), 50-88.
【258】 Walther, J. B., & Parks, M. R. (2002). Cues filtered out, cues filtered in: Computer-mediated communication and relationships. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Handbook of Interpersonal Communication (pp. 529-563). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
【259】 Weisband, S., & Kiesler, S. (1986). Self-disclosure on computer forms: Meta-analysis and implications. Proceedings of CHI96.Available on the WWW at: http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/papers/Weisband/sw_txt.htm (retrieved September, 2008).
【260】 Weisgerber, C. (2000). Meeting strangers in cyberspace and real life: A comparison of initial face-to-face and computer-mediated interaction. Paper presented to the Human Communication and Technology Commission of the National Communication Association, Seattle, Washington.
【27】 Baron, N. S. (2007). My Best Day: Presentation of Self and Social Manipulation in Facebook and IM. Paper presented at Internet Research 8.0 Association of Internet Researchers Vancouver, British Columbia October.
【261】 Wellman B., & Potter, S. (1999). The elements of personal community. In B. Wellman (Ed), Networks in the Global Village. Boulder, CO, Westview Press.
【262】 Wellman, B., & Gulia, M (1999). The network basis of social support: A network is more than the sum of its ties. In B. Wellman (Ed), Networks in the Global Village. Boulder, CO, Westview Press.
【263】 West, C., & Fenstermaker, S. (1993). Power, inequality and the accomplishment of gender: an ethnomethodological view. In P. England (Ed.), Theory on Gender/Feminism on Theory. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
【264】 West, C., & Zimmermann, S. (1993). Doing Gender. Gender and Society, 1(2): 123-151.
【265】 Wheeless, L. R. (1976). Self-disclosure and interpersonal solidarity: Measurement, validation and relationships. Human Communication Research, 2, 338-346.
【266】 Wheeless, L.R. (1978). A follow-up study of the relationship among self-disclosure, and interpersonal solidarity. Human Communication Research 4:143–157.
【267】 Wheeless. L. R., Erickson. K. V., & Behrens, J. S. (1986a). Cultural differences in disclosiveness as a function of locus of control. Communication Monographs. 23, 36-46.
【268】 Wheeless, L.R., and Grotz, J. (1976). Conceptualization and measurement of reported self-disclosure. Human Communication Research 2: 338–346.
【269】 Wheeless, L. R., & Grotz, J. (1977). The measurement of trust and its relationship to self-disclosure. Human Communication Research, 3, (3), 250-257.
【270】 Wheeless, L. R., Nesser, K., & McCroskey, J. C. (1986b). The relationship of selfdisclosure and disclosiveness to high and low communication apprehension. Communication Research Reports, 3, 129-134.
【28】 Baron, N. S., Squires, L., Tench, S., & Thompson, M. (2005). Tethered or Mobile? Use of Away Messages in Instant Messaging by American College Students. In R. Ling & P. Pedersen (Eds.), Front Stage – Back Stage: Mobile Communication and the Renegotiation of the Social Sphere, Springer-Verlag.
【271】 Witmer, D., & Katzman, S. (1997). On-line smiles: Does gender make a difference in the use of graphic accents? Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2(4).
【272】 Won-Doornink, M. J. (1985). Self-disclosure and reciprocity in conversation: a cross-national study. Social Psychology Q. 48, 97-107.
【273】 Worthy, M., Gary, A. L., & Kahn, G. M. (1969). Selfdisclosure as an exchange process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13: 59–63.
【274】 Yang, K.S., 1992. Do Traditional and Modern Values Coexist in a Modern Chinese Society? In Proceedings of the Conference on Chinese Perspectives on Values. Taipei: Center for Sinological Studies, 117-158 (in Chinese).
【275】 Yang, M. M. (1994). Gifts, Favors and Banquets: The Act of Social Relationships in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
【276】 Yuki Noguchi (2006). On IM, Keeping Tabs and Keeping Up Appearances Status Icons Show Who's Where When. Washington Post, Tuesday, April 4, 2006; pp. A01.
【277】 Yum, J.O. (1988). The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in East Asia. Communication Monographs, 55, 374-388.
【29】 Barrett, E., & Lally, V. (1999). Gender differences in an on-line learning environment, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 15, 48–60.
【30】 Baym, N. K. (1995). The emergence of community in computer-mediated interaction. In S. G. Jones (Ed.), Cybersociety: Computer-mediated communication and Community (pp. 138-163). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
【31】 Baym, N. K., Zhang, Yan Bing, & Lin, Mei-Chen (2002). The Internet in College Social Life. Paper presented to the Association of Internet Researchers, October 15, 2002, Maastricht, NL.
【32】 Bayne, R., Horton, I., Merry, T., & Noyes, E (1994). The Counselor's handbook, a practical A-Z guide to professional and clinical practice. London: Chapman and Hill.
【33】 Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112.
【34】 Bian, Y. (1997). Bring strong lies back in: Indirect ties, network bridges, and job searchers in China. American Sociological Review, 62, 366-385.
【35】 Blest, A.D. (1961). The concept of „ritualisation“.In W. H. Thorpe & O. L. Zangwill (Eds.), Current problems in animal behaviour (pp. 102-104). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
【36】 Blumler, J. G., & Katz, E. (1974). The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
【37】 Bonebrake, K. (2002). College students' Internet use, relationship formation, and personality correlates. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 5 (6), 551-557.
【38】 Boneva, B. S., Quinn, A., Kraut, R. E., Kiesler, S., & Shklovski, I. (2006). Teenage communication in the instant messaging era. Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology, 201-218. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
【39】 Boyd, D. (2001). Sexing the Internet: Reflections on the role of identification in online communities. Presented at Sexualities, medias and technologies: theorizing old and new practices. University of Surrey, June 21-22, 2001.
【40】 Brehm, S. (1985). Intimate relationships. New York: Random House.
【41】 Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 447-460). New York: Guildford Press.
【42】 Bromley, D. B. (1993). Reputation, image and impression management. New York: Wiley.
【43】 Butterfield, F. (1983). China: Alive in the Bitter Sea. London, UK: Coronet Books.
【44】 Cahn, D. D. (1984). Communication in interpersonal relationships in two cultures: Friendship formation and mate selection in the US and Japan. Communication, 13, 31-37.
【45】 Caldwell, M. A., & Peplau, L. A. (1982). Sex differences in same-sex friendship. Sex Roles, 8(7), 721-732.
【46】 Cameron, D. (1996). The language-gender interface: Challenging co-optation. In V.L. Bergvall, J. M. Bing, & A. F. Freed (Eds.), Rethinking language and gender research: Theory and practice (pp. 31-53). London and New York: Longman.
【47】 Cameron, A. F., & Webster, J. (2005). Unintended consequences of emerging communication technologies: instant messaging in the workplace. Computers in Human Behavior, v21 i1. 85-103.
【48】 Canary, D., Emmers-Sommer, T. M., & Faulkner, S. (1998.) Sex and Gender Differences in Personal Relationships. The Guilford Press.
【49】 Caplan, S. E. (2001). Challenging the mass-interpersonal communication dichotomy: Are we witnessing the emergence of an entirely new communication system? Electronic Journal of Communication, 11(1).
【50】 Castelluccio, M. (1999). E-mail in real time. Strategic Finance, 81(3), 34-37.
【51】 Castells, M. (Ed.). (2004). The network society: A cross-cultural perspective. North Hampton, MA: Edgar Elgar.
【52】 Castells, M. (2007). Communication, Power and Counter-power in the Network Society. International Journal of Communication 1 (2007), 238-266, http://ijoc.org/ojs/index.php/ijoc/article/view/46/35 (retrieved October, 2008).
【53】 Chaikin, A. L., & Derlega, V. J. (1974). Variables Affecting the Appropriateness of Self-Disclosure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 588-593.
【54】 Chambers, J. C. (1992). Linguistic correlates of gender and sex. English World-Wide, 13 (2): 173-218.
【55】 Chatterjee, S., Abhichandrini, T., Li, Haiqing, Tulu, B., & Byun, J. (2005). Instant Messaging and presence technologies for college campuses. IEEE Network (19:3), 4-13.
【56】 Chelune, J. G. (1979). Measuring openness in interpersonal communication. In J. G. Chelune, (Ed.), Selfdisclosure: origins, patterns and implications of openness in interpersonal relationship (pp. 14–30). San Francisco, CA: Jossy- Bass.
【57】 Chen, G. M. (1995). Differences in self-disclosure patterns among Americans versus Chinese: A comparative study. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 26, 84-91.
【58】 Chen, L. (2003). Conversation Orientation and Cognitive Processes: A Comparison of U.S. American Students in Initial Interaction with Native vs. Non-native Speaker Partners. Human Communication Research, 28, 182-209.
【59】 Chen, Y.-W. (2006). The Twain have met! Investigating crucial indicators for intercultural friendship levels between international students from four East Asian countries and U.S. Americans. Paper presented at the Sooner Communication Conference, Norman, OK.
【60】 Chen, X., Chen, C. (2004). On the intricacies of the Chinese guanxi: A process model of guanxi development. Asia Journal of Management, 21, 305-324.
【61】 Chenault, B. G. (1998). Developing Personal and Emotional Relationships Via Computer-Medicated Communications. http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1998/may/chenault.html (retrieved April 4th, 2007).
【62】 Chesebro, J. W., & Bonsall, D. G. (1989). Computer-Mediated Communication: Human Relationships in Computerized World. The University of Alabama Press.
【63】 Clark, H. H. (1996). Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
【64】 Clark, H. H., & Brennan, S. E. (1991). Grounding in communication. In L. B. Resnick, J. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition (pp. 127-149). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
【65】 Cline, R. J. (1983). The acquaintances process as relational communication. In R. W. Bostram (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 7. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
【66】 Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (Supplement), S95-S120.
【67】 Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 116: 457–475.
【68】 Cowie, R., & Cornelius, R. R. (2003). Describing the emotional states that are expressed in speech, Speech Communication, 40(1-2): 5–32.
【69】 Cozby, P. C. (1973). Self-disclosure: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 79(2), 73-91.
【70】 Chronicles. (1994). Time, 144:20.
【71】 Culnan, M. J., & Markus, M. L (1987). Information technologies. In F. M. Jablin, L. L. Putnam, K. H. Roberts, & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (pp. 420-443). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
【72】 Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1986). Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness and Structural Design. Management Science (32:5), 554-571.
【73】 DeAngelis, T. (2000). Is Internet addiction real? APA Monitor, Special Issue on Psychology and the Internet, 31, 20–23.
【74】 Debrand, C. C., & Johnson, J. J. (2008). Gender Differences in Email and Instant Messaging: A Study of Undergraduate Business Information Systems Students. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48, 3, 20.
【75】 Deering, C. G. (1999). To speak or not to speak. American Journal of Nursing, 99, 34-38.
【76】 Derks, D., Bos, A., & Grumbkow, J. (2008). Emoticons in computer-mediated communication: Social motives and social context. Cyberpsychology and behavior 11(1): 99– 101.
【77】 Derlega, V. J. (1984). Self-disclosure and intimate relationships. In V. J. Derlega (Ed.) Communication, Intimacy and Close Relationships (pp. 1–10). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
【78】 Derlega, V. J., & Berg, J. H. (1987). Self-disclosure: theory research, and therapy. New York: Plenum.
【79】 Derlega, V. J., & Chaikin, A. L. (1975). Sharing intimacy. What we reveal to others and why? New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs.
【80】 Derlega, V. J., Metts, S., Petronio, S., & Margulis, S. T. (1993). Self-disclosure. London: Sage.
【81】 Derlega, V., Winstead, B., Wong, P., & Greenspan, M. (1987). Self-disclosure and relationship development: An attributional analysis. In M. E. Roloff, & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: New directions in communication research (pp. 172-187). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
【82】 Derlega, V. J., Winstead, B. A., Wong, P. T. P., & Hunter, S. (1985). Gender effects in an initial encounter: A case where men exceed women in disclosure. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 25-44.
【83】 DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development. Theory and applications, Sage Publications, London.
【84】 DeVito, J. A. (1983).The Interpersonal Communication book. 3rd Ed. New York: Harper and Row.
【85】 Dillon, K., Wolf, E., & Katz, H. (1985). Sex roles, gender, and fear. Journal of Psychology, 119, 355-359.
【86】 Dindia, K. (1983). Reciprocity of self-disclosure: A sequential analysis. In M. Burgoon (Ed.), Communication yearbook 6 (pp. 506–528). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
【87】 Dindia, K., & Allen, M. (1992). Sex differences in self-disclosure: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 112. 106± 124.
【88】 Dolgin, K. G., Meyer, L., & Schwartz, J. (1991). Effects of gender, target's gender, topic and self-esteem on disclosure to best and midling friends. Sex Roles, 25, 311-329.
【89】 Dolgin, K.G., & Minowa, N. (1997). Gender differences in self-presentation: a comparison of the roles of flatteringness and intimacy in self-disclosure to friends, Sex Roles, 36(5/6), 371–380.
【90】 Douglas K., & McGarty, C. (2001) Identifiability and self-presentation: computer-mediated communication and intergroup interaction. British Journal of Social Psychology 40: 399–416.
【91】 Doyle, J. (1989). The Male Experience (2nd Ed.). Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown.
【92】 Eagleton, J. (2004). Cultural Keywords. In J. Eagleton, Asian Emphasis. http://www.asian-emphasis.com/wiriting/Cultural%20Keywords.pdf (retrieved October, 2008).
【93】 Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
【94】 Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(44), 735–754.
【95】 Ebben, M. M. (1994). Women on the Net: An Exploratory Study of Gender Dynamics on the soc. women Computer Network. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.
【96】 Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1992). Think practically and look locally: language and gender as community-based practice. Annually Review of Anthropology, 21: 461-490.
【97】 Ehrlich, L. G. (2000). Fatal Words and Friendly Faces. Maryland: University Press of America.
【98】 Ehrlich, S. F. (1987). Social and psychological factors influencing the design of office communication systems. In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface (pp. 323-329). New York: ACM Press.
【99】 Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face. A guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
【100】 Fischer, C. (1992). America calling: a social history of the telephone to 1940. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Description: 碩士
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0954610191
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[International Master's Program in International Communication Studies] Theses

Files in This Item:

File SizeFormat

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing