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Title: 邱琪兒之《九重天》及《頂尖女孩》中顛覆性的時空策略
The Subversive Spatial and Temporal Strategies in Caryl Churchill's Cloud Nine and Top Girls
Authors: 陳逸欣
I-hsin Chen
Contributors: 姜翠芬
Tsui-fen Jiang
I-hsin Chen
Keywords: 凱洛•邱琪兒
Caryl Churchill
Mikhail Bakhtin
feminist geographical theorist
spatial metaphor
Henri Lefebvre
the production of space
Michel Foucault
geographies of resistance
Date: 2005
Issue Date: 2009-09-17 16:20:07 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本論文探討英國劇作家凱洛•邱琪兒之《九重天》以及《頂尖女孩》兩劇中深具顛覆性的時空手法。本論文由五章組成。第一章回顧多年來相關的眾多評論角度。第二章援引巴赫汀(Mikhail Bakhtin)的時空型(chronotope)概念探討兩戲中時空融匯的現象,尤其是劇中人物心理、身體狀態,戲劇時空,以及外在社會文化時空背景,三者之間緊密的互動。兩齣戲各別有著兩個不同的時空型:《九重天》第一幕代表的是性別角色僵化的時空型,第二幕則代表了1979年當時社會上傳統性別角色開放且迅速轉變的狀態;《頂尖女孩》則透過一對姐妹Marlene與Joyce對映出當時兩種不同的女性生活,一個是典型八零年代柴契爾主義的事業女強人,一個則是在此種政經趨勢下卻相對更加弱勢的傳統女性。

第三章則探討兩劇第一幕呈現長久以來隱藏空間當中的性別歧視。透過女性地理學者(feminist geographical theorist)之觀點,筆者分析兩戲當中兩性間不同的空間體驗(spatial experience),以及公/私領域之分界(private-public distinction)所暗藏性別歧視的空間隱喻(spatial metaphor)。當男性與冒險及旅行等等充滿能動性(mobility)的字眼連結,女性卻總是被動地與家庭空間緊緊連繫。邱琪兒在此揭露空間亦為不公平的性別政治當中之一環。

第四章則著重於分析《九重天》第二幕當中的公園場景,以及《頂尖女孩》第二、三幕的辦公室與廚房場景。首先援引傅柯(Michel Foucault)的異質空間(heterotopia)概念來討論各場景間複雜的鏡像與補償關係。透過空間理論學者昂希.列菲弗爾(Henri Lefebvre)以及抵抗地景(geographies of resistance)的空間生產理論分析邱琪兒如何透過呈現特定社會族群佔領特定空間的手法,企圖激進地改變現實當中此類空間的社會意義。

This thesis is to examine Caryl Churchill’s subversive temporal and spatial devices on stage in Cloud Nine and Top Girls. The chronotopes of the two plays articulate how people’s states of beings interact with the external social and cultural conditions, especially during the 1980s in London. Both plays crystallize the space politics full of gender discriminations in the patriarchal society. In addition, Churchill’s dramatic devices are the subversive spatial practice that transforms the gendered spaces into the sites of resistance in order to manifest her protest and seeks more possibilities for the gender roles in the future.

There are five chapters in this thesis. Chapter One is an introduction, including the overview of two plays and the review of numerous analyses in the past two and half decades. In Chapter Two, Churchill’s theatrical temporal and spatial devices, including setting, synchronism, and anachronism in Cloud Nine and Top Girls construct chronotopes that lay bare the special social and cultural condition in a certain historical moment. Those chronotopes demonstrate how Churchill unifies people’s internal states of being and the external political structures together. Moreover, by presenting the chronotopes, Churchill criticizes the slowness of the progress in gender politics and the possible backlash about women’s right in the 1980s.

In Chapter Three, I analyze how the spatiality of patriarchy constructed by the private-public dichotomy in both Act Ones of Cloud Nine and Top Girls. The spatial experiences between men and women depicted in Act One of Cloud Nine illustrate the stereotypical masculinity and femininity in the Victorian age. The spatial metaphors about movement in Act One of Top Girls expose the strict boundary between the private and the public spaces, and foreshadow the importance of mobility as being a possible strategy to transgress the boundaries.

Finally, Chapter Four is the analysis about how Churchill subversively and politically explores the possibility of creating new social spaces in the park space of Cloud Nine and the office space of Top Girls. Her theatrical strategies are potential spatial practices that create the rupture to transgress the unfair restrictions and discriminations in the patriarchal and heterosexual society. The final chapter concludes that Churchill’s dramatic devices about time and space are the subversive strategies to conduct her observations and criticisms about the unfairness in society.
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