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Title: 契訶夫「聖誕節慶故事」的諧擬手法分析
Other Titles: The Device of Parody in Chekhov’s “Christmas stories”
Authors: 鄢定嘉
Yen, Ting-chia
Contributors: 斯語系
Keywords: 契訶夫;聖誕節慶故事;體裁;諧擬;手法;欺騙讀者期待視野
A. P. Chekhov;Christmas stories;Genre;Parody;Device;Deceiving readers' horizon of expectations
Date: 2010-12
Issue Date: 2014-12-30 11:35:52 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 以聖誕節節期(святки)為時間背景的聖誕節慶故事(святочный рассказ)形成於十九世紀上半葉,融合俄羅斯口傳文學中「小故事」(былички)和歐洲聖誕故事(Christmas story)之特點,幻想性、具道德教化目的、歡樂結局等為其重要元素。為補貼家計,年輕的契訶夫以不同筆名在小刊物中發表文章,屬於「應景文學」的聖誕節慶故事遂成為其創作體裁之一。然而,此時聖誕節慶故事已面臨體裁危機,契氏因此很早就意識到對普通讀者而言,帶有神秘、幻想成份的故事早已成為陳腔濫調。而有意識地拒絕文學規範這一特質,使諧擬成為契訶夫慣用的手法之一。\r格羅莫夫(М. Громов)稱作家經常使用的諧擬為「文學諧擬」(литературная пародия)或「風格諧擬」(стилевая пародия),因為作家創作時,諧擬的對象「並非某本具體的書,而是盡量捕捉某種體裁的特點」 。契訶夫的七篇聖誕節慶故事(〈哈哈鏡〉、〈可怕的夜晚〉、〈鏡子〉、〈墓園之夜〉、〈那就是她!〉、〈男孩們〉、〈鞋匠與魔鬼〉)具備該體裁應具備之要點,但它們的情節、人物形象或母題等,讓人聯想到哥德式小說、少年冒險小說,以及「與魔鬼交易」等與浪漫主義文學相關的體裁或主題。然而作家置入浪漫主義文學作品元素的同時,卻不斷欺騙讀者「期待視野」,使其對聖誕節奇蹟發生的期待幻滅。本文即從諧擬觀點出發,分析契氏在聖誕節慶故事中運用的各種諧擬手法,藉此突顯該體裁小說在作家筆下表現出的藝術性。
Christmas stories, in which the time setting are during the twelve days of Christmas, were turned into one kind of literature genre in the first half of 19th century. It combined the characteristics of the “bylichki” in Russian oral literature and European Christmas stories: fantasy, moral enlightenment, and the happy ending.To support his family, young Chekhov used different pseudonyms to publish Christmas stories in light publications. Although he already realized that at that time common readers regarded mystery and fantasy stories as cliché, and the genre of Christmas stories confronted crisis. Chekhov manipulated the technique of parody to consciously reject the literary norm.Since the object of parody for writers is “the characteristic of some kind of genre, but not specific book”, M. Gromov addresses writers’ parody as “literary parody” or “style parody”.In Chekhov’s seven short works, The Distorting Mirror, Horror Night, The Mirror, A Night at the Graveyard, It’s her, Boys, The Shoemaker and the Devil there are characteristics of Christmas stories. However, the plots, figure image and motive remind readers of the Romantic genre or theme, for instance, the Gothic fiction, teenaged adventure fiction and “the deal with the Devil”. Nevertheless, applying the elements of Romanticism, Chekhov disappoints readers’ expectation of Christmas miracle and deceives their “horizon of expectations”. In this article, author analyze the technique of parody in Chekhov’s Christmas stories, and emphasize the artistry of this genre in his works.
Relation: 俄語學報, 17, 149-172
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[斯拉夫語文學系] 期刊論文
[俄語學報 ] 期刊論文

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